The brightest stars at the night sky / Scientific Hit

Before dealing with the question, what a star is the brightest, you need to clarify that they do not include planets, although they also look like stars.

For example, Venus definitely refers to the brightest. Jupiter who looks like a bright star in the south, also the brightness surpasses all the others. Sometimes you can see a reddish Mars, which also glows brighter many stars. But we will consider only real stars, not the planet. The star named the Sun either will not consider it - it is out of competition, but only the day, and not at night.

For those who ask questions that the very bright star of yellowish color shines in the morning in the east in December 2020, before the sunrise, it is Venus, the planet closest to us. Another bright star of reddish color in the south is Mars, the confrontation of which occurred on October 13, 2020.

In total, there are no one dozen bright stars in the sky, many of whom are in the southern hemisphere. But from the territory of Russia, many constellations are visible, located south of ecliptic and those considered to be southern, so some bright stars of the southern constellations are visible and from us. Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky, located in the Southern Constellation of Big Psa, is clearly visible in Russia from late autumn until spring.

Sirius is the brightest star in the night of the Big Psa night, the brightest not only in his constellation, but in general in the sky. It would seem that it should be a very big and hot star, since she shines stronger than everyone. In fact, it is not so, just Sirius is not very far from us, compared to most of the other stars - only 8.6 light years before it. This is one of the closest stars, therefore so noticeable.

Sirius is very well noticeable in winter. This is the brightest star at the night sky in his southern part, lower and left the constellation Orion. By the spring, she shifts to the West and rises even below. In the summer is not visible.

Sirius - Double Star. The main component is a hot white star, twice as much as the Sun and 1.7 times more. This star is not a particularly noteworthy. It awaits ordinary fate - 660 million years she will become a red giant, and then with white dwarf.

Syryus System in Space Engine Simulator

At a distance of just 20 astronomical units from this star, there is another - white dwarf, a very curious object. This star is called a puppy and it makes turnover in orbit for 50 years. The size of this star is very small - like the earth, but her mass like the sun. The density of its substance is enormous - the volume in the matchbox will weigh a ton.

Sirius B - the first white dwarf, open scientists. Back in 1844, the German astronomer and mathematician Bessel noticed that Sirius moves in the sky not directly, but "wounded." He explained this to the indignation of a massive satellite, and in 1862 this was confirmed - Sirius B was discovered by Alvan Graham in the largest 46-centimeter refractor telescope. This has become an important event, as it confirmed theoretical laws in practice.

This White Dwarf in the sky is a star of 8.6 m with brightness, and when it is at the greatest distance from Sirius A, it can be easily found even in a small telescope. By the way, now just that time when the distance between the components is maximally, but it is already beginning to decrease.

In ancient times, Sirius was of great importance - when he appeared in the morning, the Egyptian priests knew that the summer solstice was coming, and the spill of the Nile and the summer heat fell. Sirius was called "dog star", and in Latin it sounds like "Kanis". Therefore, the summer heat, which foreshadowed the morning appearance of Sirius, meant rest from hard work - vacation, or "dog days." By the way, at this time, the fever developed in humans and cases of dog rabies were studied, so the name turned out to be quite reasonable.

Other bright stars

In total, there are several dozen bright stars in the sky, which are allocated among others. All of them are different - some not much more than the sun, for example, Sirius is the brightest star in the sky. Toliman, Alpha Centauro, and the same as the sun. Some - amazing the imagination of giants, such as Betelgeuse.

All of them are at different distances, so their brightness has not yet been saying. For example, if instead of the Sirius instead of the Sun, this starring of a good star would just kind of land, instantly boil the oceans and turning them into steam. The red supergiant of Bethelgeuse and would absorb our planet at all.

The list of brightest stars on the earth's sky is presented in the table below.

20 brightest stars in the sky

Astrology is ancient science. Scientists-astrologers argue that the stars affect the lives of people. Few today denier such a statement. No wonder astrological forecasts are so popular.

Emerging time people have studied mysterious celestial points that appear in the sky every night. Back in the distant past, people began to study the stars, and draw up the cards of the starry sky. Each open star was assigned a name. So people seemed that mysterious luminaries get closer to man. They prayed, entire rituals were devoted, the myths and legends were created. The man believed - the gods live on the stars and manage the life of prehistoric people. They were convinced that there is a life at the top that is better than the earth. After all, endless wars continued on Earth, sickness, hunger and disaster were played.

Today, as many centuries ago, a person continues to admire the beauty of the stars in the sky. We are attracted to their mysteriousness and unusual. A modern man knows about the stars much more than his ancestors, but still continues to contact them. Many people dream of star travel. Study of these objects are engaged in astronomers and amateurs. Each day there are new discoveries and riddles. We propose to make a mental journey to ten brightest stars in the sky.

10. Betelgeuse (α Orion)

B3VNP.

It is located in 570 light years from the ground. The Astronomical Atlas is called Alpha Orion and ranks last in the list of the brightest stars of the night sky. The mystery of Bethelgeuse is in its periodic variability. Astronomers cannot explain why in just a few decades it decreased by 15%. This fact does not give rest to scientists. They continue to nominate new fantastic hypotheses about the origin of Bethelgeuse.

Alpha Orion is red giants. During pulsation exceeds the diameter of the Sun 500-800 times. To present it, we must mentally move mysterious Bethelgeuse to our solar system. Then she extended to the orbit of Jupiter.

In Altai fairy tales, Bethelgeuse means an arrow released by the hunter in Marala.

The study of Bethelgei from the Constellation of Orion continues every day. About the journey to it is still early.

9. Ahernar (α Eridan)

F5IV-V.

Astronomers call her Alpha Eridan. This blue, very hot star occupies the ninth position of our list of the brightest stars. Ahernar is a double star placed in the southern end of Eridan's constellation. It has a surplus spherical shape resembling an egg, and has a mass equivalent to 8 solar. The brightness of Eridan alpha exceeds the brightness of our sun a thousand times. The form of the sphere of the star accepted due to the unusually high speed of rotation.

The constellation is named after the famous Phaeton - the son of God Helios. According to the legend, it was for Eridan that the chariot of chain of chain moved. Travel to Ahernar will last about 140 light years. It should not expect it to take place in our generation.

8. Press (α of small PSA)

B8iae.

At the eighth place is a priest. In Star Atlas, astronomers called her Alpha Small Psa. This is a double star, consisting of a basic - a message A, and the accompanying little dull dwarf - the intermediate V.

The constellation is named after the dog of the first manufacturer of Irakli's wine, which was able to find the burial place of his owner.

This star rises in the sky a little earlier than Sirius and the ancient Greeks called it "in front of the dog", which means the literal translation of the Greek word "priest." Together with Sirius and Betelgeuse, the probe is one of the vertices of the "winter triangle" - a navigation reference point.

7. Rigel (β Orion)

G6III + G2III.

This night object is called Beta Orion. It consists of three stars, together be a white-blue supergiant. Rigel shines the brighter of the sun almost every 130 thousand times. This is the most powerful star in the foreseeable galaxy.

Beta Orion is located in 870 light years from our planet. There is a bright closer, it would be eclipsed by the rest of the night stars. The diameter of the rigel is 103 million km. This is more than 74 times!

Many myths are associated with this star. The ancient inhabitants of Egypt identified her with God Sachu - the patron of the dead. Later, the Rigel became the symbol of Osiris, the main god of beliefs of this ancient people.

6. Capella (α over)

A0VA.

This sixth object from our rankings of stars. In the northern hemisphere it is the third luminosity. Visually, the chapel is on the shoulder of the challenge of the eponymous constellation. In astronomical satin, the alpha challenge is called. The unusualness of her is that the chapel also represents a double star. Two yellow giants rotate at a distance of 100 million km around each other. The total mass of them exceeds the sunny by 2.5 times.

Traveling to this star would last about 42 light years.

The word chapel comes from the Greek "goat". The name is devoted to the goat Amalfoe, who focused on the main god of the Greeks of Zeus. According to legend, when Zeus accidentally broke one horn, he turned it into the legendary "Horn of Isobacy". Magically, he was filled with anything at the request of the owner.

5. Vega (α lira)

K1.5iiip.

A star in the constellation Lyra is located and is the fifth brightness of the object of our list. Interestingly, the photograph of the vega was made by the second after the sun. Ancient astrologers identified vega as the "most important" star. It is removed from our planetary system is 25 light years. The constellation Lyra studied, perhaps, more than other stars.

Vega is the brightest star of the northern hemisphere.

Scientist managed to find that the speed of rotation of this star is very large. It is known that the vega surrounds a kind of mysterious dusty disk.

Assyrians nicknamed this star "Sudie Sky", attributing to her the right to the highest justice. The ancient Greeks of the vega considered a part of the Lyra, which was manufactured by Hermes. Subsequently, Apollo handed this LIRA to the famous Orphere, a friend and comrades of Jason - the famous leader of the Argonauts.

Astrologers consider the vega of one of the 15 stars most influencing human fate.

4. Arctic (α Volopasa)

G2V + K1V.

The fourth place in the list occupies Arcturus, another name is Alpha Volopasas. The mass of this orange giant corresponds to our sun, but in brightness more than 100 times. We would have to get to Arctica would have to approximately 36 light years.

Russia is observed by Alpha Volopasas all 12 months. It is necessary only to mentally connect three glowing points into one arc, denoting the handle in the bucket of a large bear. At one end and there will be Arcturus.

In ancient Greek, the name means "the guard of the bear". According to the beliefs of the Greeks, Arkurkur must protect the Nymph named Callisto - the Mother of Zeus, which Gera turned to the Medleang.

3. Toliman (α Centaurus)

Not visible

The famous Alpha Centaurus became the third in terms of the level of brightness as an object. Few know that astronomers call her Toliman. Familiar on the popular movie name denotes a triple star. Thanks to the optical effects, we see it as one.

Alpha Centaurus is located in a galactic scale not far away - just 4 light years and is the closest to us the star. The characteristics of the two stars of the message are very similar to our sun. The third is a proxyman Centauro - Red Dwarf. Scientists believe that Alpha Centaurus has its own planetary system on which the presence of alien life is possible.

In the southern hemisphere Alpha Centauri enters the starry system of southern pointers. They help to determine the southern cross - the main navigation sign of all seawares. It is Tolimin that helps to distinguish the southern cross from false.

The word "Centaur" is a distorted interpretation of the Greek word "Centaur". According to legend, Centaur Hiron died, saving from imprisonment of the famous Prometheus. The hero became immortal. For this feat, Hiron got it and turned into a constellation called the constellation constellation.

2. Canopus (α keel)

In addition to the extreme north

Canopus or alpha keel - takes a second position in the level of brightness. It is visible only in the southern hemisphere. The yellowish white overshigant is at the removal of 320 light years from the ground. The luminosity of the canopus exceeds the sunny at 14 thousand times!

By the way, this is the brightest star of the southern hemisphere.

If around the Sun, describe the sphere with a radius of 700 light years, then canopus will not have equal in the level of brightness in this space. But since it is very removed from the ground, so earthly astronomers classify alpha keel as a second brightness.

The ancient Egyptians called the Golden Earth's canopus, which is due to the peculiarities of its observation. Greek mythology claims that the name of the fodder ship was so called, at which King Meneli traveled - one of the main characters of the Trojan War.

1. Sirius (α large PSA)

Sirius (α big dog)

Finally, the winner of the rating of the brightest stars of our sky is Sirius, or as Astronomers Alpha Great Psa are called. The brightness of this star is 25 times higher than the brightness of the sun. There are many objects that shine much brighter Sirius. But due to the fact that Alpha Great Psa is located on astronomical standards almost near (8.6 light years), we see it as the brightest.

Sirius is a double star. One of this pair is a red giant, the other is a white dwarf. Find her in the sky simply. If you spend a straight line via Orion belt, then in the south-east, the line will specify this object. You can observe it from anywhere on Earth.

A lot of legends are connected with Sirius. Maori believed that gods live there, periodically attached to the ground. The ancient Egyptians associated Sirius with the cult of God Osiris and the goddess of Isis. Suchmeras worshiped Sirius as the main star. According to their beliefs, the gods flew from him to sow life on earth.

For a person, the brightest star in the sky is the sun, which is "total" in some 150 million km from us. In fact, the Sun is a modest yellow dwarf. At the moment, the brightest of fixed stars is R136A1, which is about 9 million times brighter than our shining. But at the same time, she still does not see the unarmed look, because it is removed from the Sun for 165,000 light years. Therefore, this rating was the stars having the greatest brightness (visible star magnitude) from the point of view of the earth's observer.

1. Sirius

The observer from Earth, not armed with no additional optics, besides his own eyes, the brightest in the sky will be presented by Sirius or Alpha Constellation of Big Psa. To a large extent, such brightness of Sirius is explained by its closeness to the solar system, because between them is only 8.6 light years.

Sirius lasts longer than other stars in the sky, since his bright rays are able to pierce the fattest bottom layer of the atmosphere when it is slightly above the horizon. Compared to the sun, Sirius is 25 times brighter and twice as much.

2. Canopus

White supergiant Canopus (Alpha Collide of Kiel) Brighter our star is 15,000 times, therefore, despite a significant removal of 310 light years, it became the second brightness of the star skyscland. Canopus has 71 times larger diameter than the sun and 10 times more massive.

3. Alpha Centaurus

The name says that this is the largest star of the constellation Centaur. There are three stars, rotating around the common center of the masses, but they seem to be the only asterisk. Alpha according to the characteristics is very similar to the sun and is actually a lot of other stars in this rating. But her "saves" proximity to the Sun, which is only 4.4 light years, that is, two times closer than the champion Sirius.

4. Arctur

Arctic (Alpha Volopasa) refers to the Red Giants. This one of the brightest shining of the northern hemisphere is easy to find on the sky, focusing on the handle of the bucket of a big bear. Arcturines are 110 times brighter, and since it completes his life cycle (at the Sun is still ahead), it will shine even brighter. Until Arcturica less than 37 light years. Only three stars overtake it in brightness, but they are all visible only in the southern hemisphere.

5. Vega

Vega is Alpha Constellation Lira, in brightness inferior only to the Arctic. For astronomers, she served as a standard star with zero magnitude. Vega is located from the Sun a little more than 25 light years. It is a star of the main sequence and one of the brightest stars of class A. It is very young - only 400-500 million years, but already brighter than the sun 40 times.

6. Capella

Alpha Constellation of the eager is actually a double star consisting of red giants. The surface temperature is about equal to the solar, but in the brightness every star of the brighter of the sun is almost 80 times. Stars rotate very close to each other (100 million km), so it is not surprising that the earth observer seems to be one star. This starry system is 42 light years from the ground.

7. Rigel

This beta, that is, the second largest star of the Constellation of Orion. Alpha Orion - Bethelgeuse is located at the last stage in front of the explosion, but it is inferior to the brightness. The distance to it is significantly more than 860 light years. The surface temperature of the Rigel is more than 12,000 K.

It is a white-blue supergiant that shines the brighter of the Sun is 130,000 times and is one of the most powerful stars in our galaxy. If the Rigel replaced the sun in our system, then the land would have been evaporated for a long time and dissipated from its heat.

8. PERSON

Alpha Small Psa is much more modest - it refers to the F-class and brighter of the sun just 40%. In addition, it almost exhausted hydrogen reserves, after which it will begin to swell to the red giant. Now the priest is 7 times the brightness of the Sun and is from it in 11.5 light years. Only a small distance allows him to attend this ranking.

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9. Ahernar

Bright blue Alpha Constellation Eridan is 7 times massive than the sun and 3,000 times brighter. Ahernar spins very quickly (at the equator up to 310 km / s), and, for example, a point on the earthly equator is only 470 m. Due to the extremely rapid rotation, the star is noticeably flattened, so closer to the pool of the pool of the star hot equator for 10 000 K. Distance to Agernar 139 SV. years.

10. Bethelgeuse

Alpha Orion is experiencing the stage of the Red Giant. Once it was a hot bright Star O-class, but after the hydrogen exhaustion, she began to burn helium and swell. Surface temperature has only 3500 K, but due to the volume of Bethelgeuse, 100,000 times the brighter. The distance to the dying star is 600 light years. It's quite a bit, and she will explode like a supernova, at some point will be the brightest star of earthly sky, visible even during the day. Hands in feet

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The brightness of the star facility or any astronomical object in space is measured by its visible value from the ground. The visible value of the object is determined by its distance from the ground, its own luminosity and any possible interference (mostly interstellar dust) on the ray of sight of the star.

The brightness of the star and its value have a reverse correlation; That is, the larger the brightness of the star, the less its visible value. The visible value of the Sun -26.74.

Another criterion for measuring the brightness of stars is known as an absolute value. It measures the luminosity of the celestial object observed from a fixed distance of 32.6 light years or 10 parses. Below is a list of the brightest stars located relatively close to our planet, depending on their visible value (excluding the sun).

15. Antares

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. Distance from Earth: 550 light years. Visible value: 0.6-1.6. Current stage of evolution:

Red supergigant.

Antares, also known as Alpha Scorpion, is the brightest star in the constellation of Scorpio. The visible magnitude of Antares ranges from +0.6 to +1.6, which is typically for a slow incorrect star variable. This is one of the biggest and bright stars on the night sky visible to the naked eye.

Antares, despite its one-sighted appearance, consists of two stars - Antares and Antares, perhaps forming a double system. The second, a much smaller star, Antares B, is a blue star of the main sequence.

According to the latest estimates, Antares has a mass between 11 to 14.3 m ☉ and the radius R 680 ☉ (approximately). If it is placed in the center of the Solar System (instead of the Sun), Antares, probably will absorb the orbit of the planet Jupiter.

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. 14. Aldebaran. 550 light years. 65.3 light years. 0.6-1.6. +0.86.

Red giant.

Aldebaran also known as Alpha Taurus, - the brightest star in the constellation of the Taurus. This is a red spectral giant class K, which emerged from the phase of the main sequence after the depletion of hydrogen in its kernel.

According to the current model of star evolution, Aldebaran's luminosity is approximately 425 times more than that of the Sun (although it is only 50 percent of the massive sun).

Pioneer 10, one of the oldest and most distant space probes of NASA, moves towards Aldebaran and should come close to it about two million years.

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. 13. Akruks. 550 light years. 320 light years.

+0.76.

AKRAS, or Alfa Southern Cross, is a multiple star system located in the Southern Cross constellation, about 320 light years from us. The AKRAS system consists of at least five separate stars. The first two components, ACRUX A and ACRUX B form a close binary system. These two are accompanied by the distant AKRAS C, and together they eventually form a triple star. And ACRUX A, and ACRUX B themselves are double stars.

With a common visual value of 0.76, this is the brightest star in the constellation Southern Cross and the 13th in the brightness of the star at the night sky. AKRAS is the southernmost star of the first magnitude, it is only visible to the south of 27 ° north latitude.

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. 12. Altair 550 light years. 16.73 light years. 0.6-1.6. +0.76.

Star of the main sequence of A-type.

Altair is the brightest star in the constellation of an eagle and one of the closest stars visible to the ground. The star is about 1.8 times with a massive sun and 11 times brighter (luminosity).

Along with Venea and Denget, Altair form the asterism of the summer triangle, an imaginary triangle, connecting stars from three different constellations: eagle, lyric and swan, respectively.

Interferometric studies have shown that the star has flattened poles due to the high speed of its rotation.

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. 11. Beta Centaurus 550 light years. 390 light years.

+0.61.

Beta Centauro, also known as Hadar, is the eleventh brightness of a star at the night sky. Beta Centaurus, in fact, is a triple star system consisting of Beta Stars Aa, AB and B. and AA, and AB at least ten times massive than the Sun.

Its cumulative visual value +0.61 makes Betu Centaurus the second in the brightness star in the constellation Centaurial after our neighbors of Alpha Centaur.

In addition, Beta Centaurus demonstrates rapid changes in its brightness and, thus, is classified as a variable Beta Cephei. These brightness changes, however, are insignificant and cannot be seen with the naked eye.

10. Bethelgeuse

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. Bethelgeuse (reddish star) with conventional brightness on the left compared to an unusual minimum on the right. Bright star below - Rigel. 550 light years. 727 light years. 0.6-1.6. +0.50.

Red supergigant.

Bethelgeuse, also known as Alpha Orion, is the second star brightness in the Constellation of Orion. This is a semoregular variable star whose value ranges from 0.3 to +1.8, and this is the largest of the famous stars of the first magnitude.

For the first time, Sir John Herschel was informed about the changes in the brightness of Bethelgius between 1836 and 1840. During this period, Herschel observed sharp changes in the magnitude of the star when it was repeatedly superior, usually brighter, Rigel star.

Between 1927 and 1941, according to the American Association of Observers for variable states, the minimum observed star value of Bethelgeuse was 1.2.

According to current estimates, the mass of Bethelgeuse can be from 10 to just over 20 times more than the mass of the Sun. This is one of the most massive stars that can be observed with a naked eye.

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. 9. Ahernar 550 light years. 139 light years.

+0.46.

Ahernarnar, denoted as Alpha Eridan, is a double star system located in the constellation Eridan. The two components of the star system are Alpha Eridan A and B. A brighter of two, Eridan A, is classified as a star of the main b-type sequence, one of the brightest of all known types of stars.

The star is about 3150 times brighter and seven times massive. Ahernarnar is best observed from the southern hemisphere by 33 degrees of southern latitude, while it becomes invisible above 33 degrees of northern latitude.

8. PERSON

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. Promotion (at the top of the left), Bethelgeuse (above the right) and Sirius (below) form a winter triangle. Orion on the right. View from the northern hemisphere. 550 light years. 11.46 light years.

+0.34.

The priest, also known as Alpha Small Psa, is the brightest star in the constellation of a small dog and the eighth brightness of a star at the night sky. In fact, the priest is a double star consisting of the star of the main sequence (probe a) and white dwarf (probe B).

The temperature of the atmosphere of the approach A is estimated at about 6,530 k, and its luminosity is about seven times more than the sun. Together with Sirius and Bethelgeuse, the priest forms the asterism of the winter triangle.

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. 7. Rigel A. 550 light years. 860 light years. 0.6-1.6. 0.13.

Blue supergigant. Rigel is the brightest star in the Constellation of Orion. Although it looks like one star, the Rigel is a system of at least four stars. The most outstanding star of the group, Rigel A, 120,000 times brighter and 21 times more thanks (both values ​​vary depending on the method). Other components include Rigel и BA. BB. C.

(Spectroscopic Double System) and False Rigel

Rigel is classified as a variable of alpha swan, a group of stars variable, which simultaneously demonstrate compression on one part and expansion on another part of the star surface. Its brightness (visible value) ranges from 0.05 to 0.18.

Although the Rigel is usually the brightest star in the constellation of Orion, in different cases it eclipses the red supergiant of Bethelgeuse.

6. Capella AA / AB

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. Chapel components compared to the Sun 550 light years. 42.9 light years. 0.6-1.6. +0.08.

Red giant, main sequence.

After Arcticu and Vega, Capella is the third in the brightness of the star in the Northern Heavenly Hemisphere and the brightest in the constellation of the Easy. Capella is a multiple star system, and not one star, consisting of four stars in (binary) pairs of two.

The most outstanding of four, chapel AA is a red giant, the mass of which is 2.5 times more than the mass of the Sun, but at the same time almost 79 times brighter. Its double companion, Capella AB (subgigant), slightly smaller and less bright. The second pair, Capella H and L, much smaller than the red dwarfs.

Capella - the star of the first magnitude closest to the North Pole. Due to its location, the chapel is visible throughout the year above 44 degrees of northern latitude. On the contrary, it is invisible below 44 degrees of southern latitude.

5. Vega

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. Astrophotography Vega 550 light years. 25.4 light years. 0.6-1.6. +0.03.

Home sequence.

Vega, also known as Alpha Lyra, is one of the most studied stars in the immediate vicinity of the Sun. It was one of the first stars, the distance to which was rated by the displacement of the star parallax. The star is also used in astrophotography (for calibrating photometric brightness).

Vega is the brightest star in the constellation Lyra and the second brightness in the northern hemisphere after Arctic. It is estimated that the star is 2.1 times massive and 40 times brighter. However, its age, and the estimated life expectancy is much shorter than our star.

As the star approaches the Northern Heavenly Pole as a result of the precession of the Earth - approximately 12 thousand years old - Vega will become a polar star of the northern hemisphere. Its current declination + 38 ° 47 '.

4. Arctur

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. Optical image of Arkurkura 550 light years. 36.7 light years.

-0.05.

Arcturus is the brightest star in the constellation of Volcas and the Northern Heavenly Hemisphere. It is overshadowed by only three stars on the night sky. Although the star is only 0.8 times with a massive sun, it is 25 times more and 170 times brighter.

In 1635, Arktur became the first star (except for the sun and supernova), which in the daytime was watching the French astronomer's telescope Jean-Baptiste Morane.

3. Alpha Centauro A

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. Wide-angle image of Alfa Centaurus A created by DSS2 550 light years. 4.37 light years.

-0.27.

Alpha Centauro is a multiple star system, consisting of two close double stars, alpha centaurus A and alpha centaurus B, and relatively distant alpha centaurus C or proxy centaution. Although the proxima Centauro is the closest star to the solar system, it is much weaker than Alpha Centaur AB.

The distance between the proxima Centaur and Alfoy Centaurus AB is estimated at about 0.21 light years (in the direction of the solar system).

The most outstanding of the three stars, Alpha Centaur, is also known as Ragil Centaur, a little massive and 1.519 times the brightest sun. However, its double companion is slightly less massive and twice the lighter stars in our solar system.

2. Canopus

An image of a canopus made with an International Space Station Distance to the Earth: 550 light years. 310 light years.

-0.74.

Canopus, also known as Alpha Kiel, is the brightest star in the constellation of the keel and the second brightness in the night sky. Under normal conditions, this bright giant A-type star is visible in the southern hemisphere all year round, especially in summer.

It is believed that the luminosity of the canopus is 10,700 times more than the sun, while it is about eight times massive. Before launching the Hipparcos satellite in 1989, the estimated distance between the Sun and Canopus was from 90 to 1200 light years.

1. Sirius

This is a false-color infrared image, showing Antares in bright white color. HST-image of Sirius A and B | The image is provided: NASA. 550 light years. 8.6 light year.

-1.47.

Sirius is the brightest star on the night sky and the second brightness after the sun (it can also be observed in daylight). This is a double star, consisting of the star of the main sequence (Sirius A) and white dwarf (Sirius B).

Sirius and more than two times the massive sun, and its luminosity is 25 times more. Its absolute value is +1.42. Its satellite, Sirius B, is significantly less massive and glowing.

Although Sirius is surprisingly less shining than canopus and even a rigleel, it looks much brighter because of its distance from the ground (internal luminosity).

Sirius has a large mythological value. The ancient Greeks were afraid of Sirius and believed that he brings a hot summer as a punishment for humanity. On the contrary, the Egyptians worshiped Sirius as the goddess of fertility. Approximately 120 years before the Nativity of Christ, Greek Astronomer Hipparch

(Hipparchus) created the very first stars known today. Despite the fact that this work did not live to the present day, it is assumed that about 850 stars included in the List of Hippark.

He brought to his list of stars, which could be distinguished in every famous constellation at that time, he thoroughly described the location of each heavenly shine, and also sorted them on the brightness scale - from 1 to 6, where 1 meant the maximum possible brightness (or "Star magnitude ").

This brightness measurement method is still applied.

Visible stellar value - what is it?

With the advent of more high-precision devices for measuring light, astronomers decided to apply decimal fractions to designate stellar values ​​- for example, 2.75m - than just rudely indicate the amount of 2 or 3 numbers. Usually, when astronomers talk about stellar values, they mean " Apparently star magnitude

" As a rule, in such cases, a small Latin letter M is added to the numerical value - for example, 3.24m.

This is an indicator of the brightness of the star, which is observed by a person from Earth, without taking into account the presence of an atmosphere that affects the review. Today we know the stars, the star magnitude of which is brighter than 1m. For instance, Vega , which is the brightest star of the Lira's constellation, has a visible stellar value equal to 0. Any star, luminous brighter than Vega, will have a negative star magnitude. For example, Sirius

, the brightest star of our night sky, has a visible stellar value equal to -1.46m. Note. In astronomy, it is also applied Absolute Star Value

which determines the power of the star of the star, without amendments to the distance or other factors The list contains the brightest stars observed from the Earth, in the optical range. on the visible star

. For multiple stars, a total starry value is given. Name Distance, St. years Visible value
1Heavenly hemisphere Sirius (α big dog) 8,6 -1.46
2South Canopus (α keel) 310. -1.46
3-0,72 Toliman (α Centaurus) 4.3 -1.46
4-0.27 ArkurTur (α Volopasa) 36.7 -0.05
5North Vega (α lira) 25. -0.05
60.03. Capella (α over) 42,2 -0.05
70.08. Rigel (β Orion) 870. -1.46
80.12. PRESTION (α of small PSA) 11,4. -0.05
90.38. Ahernar (α Eridan) 139. -1.46
0.46 0.38. Ahernar (α Eridan) 139. -0.05

10

Let us turn to a more detailed description of the dozens of the brightest stars in the sky, descending their brightness.

1. Sirius (α large PSA)

The famous "dog star" (not in vain J. Rowling called so Her Hero, who turned into the PSA), the appearance of which in the sky meant for the ancient Scholyarov Beginning of the holidays (this word and means "dog days") - one of the closest to the solar system and Therefore, perfectly visible almost from any point of earth, except for the Far North.

Now it is believed that Sirius is a double star. Sirius A is twice the larger, and Sirius B is less. Although millions of years ago, apparently, it was the opposite.

Many nations left various legends associated with this star. The Egyptians considered the Sirius star of Isis, the Greeks - a dog of Orion, the Romans called His vacation ("Little Doggy"), in ancient Russian, this star was called Psyzka.

Ancient described Sirius as a red star, whereas we see a bluish glow. Scientists can explain it only to the assumption that all the ancient descriptions were compiled by people who saw Sirius low above the horizon when the color was distressed with water vapor.

Be that as it may, now Sirius is the brightest star of our skyscland, which can be seen with the naked eye even during the day!

It often flickers, as its bright light can penetrate through the lower layers of the atmosphere better than the light of other stars. It is only 8.6 light years from us, but this is a class A star, two times more massive and 25 times brighter than the sun.

Star Search Sirius in the sky

The most successful time for Sirius observations is winter (for observers of the northern hemisphere), since the Pesya Star soon appears in the evening sky. To find Sirius, use the Orion constellation as a guideline, or rather three stars from the belt. Follow the line from the left extreme star of Orion belts with a slope of 20 degrees in the direction of the southeast.

As an assistant, you can use your own fist, which closes about 10 degrees of the sky at a distance of an elongated hand, so you will need about two widths of your fist.

2. Canopus (α keel)

Supergiant Canopus 15,000 times more than the brightness of the sun, and this is the second of the brightest stars in the night sky, despite the distance of 310 light years from us.

In absolute indicators of the luminosity, Canopus is much brighter than Sirius, who, in turn, is much closer to Earth, but due to the range it seems to be dim.

Nowadays, spacecraft use light from canopus as a reference point in outer space - a bright example, Soviet interplanetary stations and Voyager 2.

Canopus is a yellow-white star super giant class F - stars with a temperature of 5500 to 7800 degrees Celsius. She has already exhausted all its hydrogen reserves, and now recycles his core consisting of helium in carbon. It helped "grow" a star: Canopus exceeds the sizes of the sun 65 times.

If we replaced the sun on canopus, this yellow-white giant was absorbed everything that was before the orbit of Mercury, including the planet itself.

Search Stars Canopus in Heaven

With the visible star magnitude in -0.72m, Canopus is fairly easy to find in the star sky, but in the northern hemisphere, this celestial luminaire can only be seen only south of 37 degrees of northern latitude. Focus on Sirius (how to find it above), Canopus is approximately 40 degrees Nordic than the brightest star of our night sky.

3. Toliman (α Centaurus)

This is a double, more precisely, even a triple star, but we see two of them as one, but the third, more dull, which is called proxima, as if separately. However, in fact, all these stars are not particularly bright, but are not far from us.

Since Toliman is somewhat similar to the sun, astronomers have long been looking for a planet near him, similar to Earth and at such a distance that makes it possible on it. In addition, this system, as already mentioned, is relatively close, so the first interstellar flight will probably be there.

Fantasy Stanislav Lem (the creator of the famous "Solaris"), Azimov, Heinline devoted this system to the page of their books; In the Alfa Centauri system, the actual film "Avatar" occurs.

In clear summer nights, the Alfa Centaurus system shines in the starry sky with an indicator in -0.27m star magnitude. True, it is best to observe this unusual three-star system in the southern hemisphere of the Earth, starting from the 28th degree of northern latitude and further to the south.

Search Star Toliman in the sky

Alpha Centauro is at the very bottom of the constellation price centaution. Also, to find this three-star system, you can start to find the constellation of the Southern Cross in the stellar sky, after that we mentally continue the horizontal line of the cross towards the West, and you will first stumble upon the Hadar star, and a little further will shine alpha centaution.

4. Arctic (α Volopasa) Orange giant, on an evolution scale somewhere between the procation and chapel. it The brightest star of the northern hemisphere

, and it is easy to find on the "handle" of the bucket of a big bear. It is only 37 light years from us, and brighter it is only three stars, all located in the southern hemisphere.

Arctic many times brighter: If you consider only a range perceived by a human eye, then a hundred more times, if you take the intensity of the glow as a whole, then 180 times! This is an orange giant with an atypical spectrum. Someday our sun will reach the same stage at which Arcturus is now.

According to one of the versions, Arctic and the neighboring stars (the so-called Arctic flow) were captured by the Milky Path. That is, all these stars have extragalactic origin.

Search Star Arkurk in the sky

Arcturus is Alfa (i.e., the brightest star) of the Spring Constellation of Volopasas. To find the "Guardian of the Medvanditsa", it is enough to find a large bucket (big bear) first and mentally continue the arc of his handles until you come across a bright orange star. This will be Arcturus, a star forming a few other stars, the figure of the air serpent.

5. Vega (α lira)

The name "Vega" comes from Arabic and means translated into a Russian "soaring eagle" or "soaring predator".

Vega is a hydrogen-burning star of dwarf, it is 54 times brighter in brightness, whereas by mass surpasses it only 1.5 times. Vega is located in 25 light years from the Sun, which is relatively slightly on cosmic standards. It belongs to the stars of the main sequence, and one of the brightest known stars known to us, as well as a pretty young, age of only 400-500 million years. Vega is the first star in the world, which managed to photograph

b This event occurred on July 16, 1850, as a photographer made an astronomer Harvard University

The speed of rotation of the vegue is very high (it rotates 137 times faster than the Sun, almost as fast as Ahern.), so the temperature of the star (and therefore its color) differs in the equator and on the poles. Now we see vega from the pole, so it seems to us a pale blue.

Search Star Vega in Heaven

Vega is the second brightness of the Northern Hemisphere star, so finding it in the star sky will not be much difficulty. The easiest way to search for entry will be the initial search for the asterism "Summer Triangle". This area is ideal for viewing in a telescope of any size, warm, dark, cloudless summer nights.

With the beginning of June, in Russia, with the onset of the first twilight, in the sky to the southeast, the "summer triangle" is well distinguished. The right upper corner of the triangle forms just the same Vega, the left upper is denb, but the Altair shines below.

6. Capella (α over)

Capella ranks third among the brightest stars of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the stars of the first magnitude (the famous polar star has only a second magnitude) Capella is located closest to the North Pole.

To date, it is known that Capella is an incredible 4-star system: 2 stars - the yellow giants of the G-class are similar, the second pair is a much more dull stars of the Red Dwarf class.

A brighter of two yellow gigant, carrying the name AA, is 80 times higher in brightness and almost three times on the mass of our luminaries. A more dull yellow giant, known as AB, brighter than the sun 50 times and difficult it is 2.5 times. If you combine the glow of these two yellow giants, then they will surpass our sun in 130 times.

Search Star Chapel in the sky

If you mentally lose directly through the two top stars Forming buckets of the constellation Big Major, you will simply inevitably push the bright star of the Capella, which is part of the non-standard pentagon constellation constellation.

For example, if you are on the 44th degree of northern latitude (G. Pyatigorsk, Russia) or yet nord, then you can watch the chapel throughout the night: in these latitudes it never goes beyond the horizon

7. Rigel (β Orion)

At the seventh place in the relative (observed us) brightness is one of the most powerful stars of the universe with an absolute value -7, that is, the brightest of the stars over or less nearby.

It is in 860 light years, and at a temperature of 12,000 degrees, the Rigel does not apply to the stars of the main sequence - this is a rare blue supergigant! It brighter the sun is 130 thousand times and 74 times more in diameter!

The temperature on the rigel is so great that if something turned out from him at the same distance on which the land is relative to the sun, this object would immediately turn into a star wind.

Rigel has two satellite stars, almost imperceptible in the brightest radiance of white-blue supergiant. It is likely that after some time it will turn into a supernova and our galaxy illuminates the incredible light from its explosion. However, it may also happen that the rigle can turn into a rare oxygen-neon white dwarf.

Search Star Rigel in Heaven

To begin with, you should find the Constellation of Orion (in Russia is observed throughout the entire territory). This is one of the most well-recognized constellations (more popular is that the constellation is a large bucket). In the lower right corner of the constellation will be brightly shine a star of Rigel.

8. Press (α of small PSA)

One of the two "dog stars" is similar to Sirius and is that he is the brightest star of the constellation of a small dog (and Sirius is the brightest star of big dogs), and that it is also double.

Promotion A - a pale yellow star in size from about the sun. It gradually expands, and millions after 10 years will become an orange or red giant. According to scientists, the process is already going on, which indicates the unprecedented brightness of the star - it is more than 7 times brighter than the Sun, although it is similar in size and spectrum.

Promotion B - its satellite, dim white dwarf - is about the same distance from the SAID approach, like uranium from the sun.

And here without riddles did not cost. Ten years ago, a long study of the star was undertaken with an orbital telescope. Astronomers were eager to receive confirmation with their hypotheses. However, the hypotheses were not confirmed, and now scientists are trying to explain what is happening on the transaction somehow differently.

Star Search Snese

To begin with, we find a good all familiar Constellation Orion. In this constellation, in the upper left corner, there is a star Bethelgeuse (also included in our rating), mentally reading from it directly in the western direction you will warm up to the probe.

9. Ahernar (α Eridan)

Ahern, translated from Arabic means "End of the River", which is quite natural: this star is the most extreme southernmost point of the constellation that begins the name of the river from ancient Greek mythology, Eridan.

Ahernar is the hottest star of our rating Top 10, its temperature varies from 13 to 19 thousand degrees Celsius.

A bright blue star, weighing seven times more than the sun, and brightness - 3,000 times more. This is one of the fastest rotating stars known to us! It rotates so quickly that its equatorial radius is 56% more polar, and the temperature on the pole - since it is much closer to the kernel - 10,000 to more. But it is quite far from us, in 139 light years.

Around Ahernar can observe the luminous shell from the star substance - it is plasma and hot gas, and the orbit of Alfa Eridan is also very unusual. By the way, Ahernar is a double star.

Search Star Ahernar in the sky

This star can be observed only in the southern hemisphere. On the territory of Russia, alas, this star is unclear. In general, for comfortable observation, Ahernar you need to be the southern 25th degree of northern latitude. To find Ahernar, spend a mentally straight line in the southern direction through the stars of Bethelgeuse and the Bimel, the first supermarket star, which you will see Ahernar.

10. Betelgeuse (α Orion)

This star, the mass of which is 17 times more solar, closes the top 10 of the brightest night stars. Betelgeuse translated from the Arabic language means "Hunter's Friend".

Bethelgeuse is one of the most mysterious stars of the universe, because it is capable of changing its size, and its density remains unchanged. The color and brightness of the giant is different in different points.

The red giant from the Constellation of Orion, Bethelgeuse was a bright and hot star class O while she did not end with hydrogen and she did not switched to helium. Despite the low temperature of 3,500 K, it is more than 100,000 times brighter, so it is among the top ten, despite the fact that there are 600 light years.

If you imagine that Bethelgeuse will become our Sun, then everything that is located to the orbit of Mars will be absorbed by this gigantic star!

Scientists expect in the future of Bethelgeuse an explosion, but considering that the star is at a huge distance from the Earth (according to some scientists - 500, according to the other - 640 light years), this should not be affected. However, a few months the star can be seen in the sky even during the day.

Search Star Bethelgeuse in the sky

To begin with, you should find the Constellation of Orion (in Russia is observed throughout the entire territory). Like all the constellation, Bethelgeuse is observed in the evening sky from December to March in the southern part of the sky. Move your eyes above Orion's belt (a group of three closest stars) to a bright star in the corner of the constellation is both Bethelgeuse.

Video.

Sources

Before dealing with the question, what a star is the brightest, you need to clarify that they do not include planets, although they also look like stars. For example, Venus definitely refers to the brightest. Jupiter who looks like a bright star in the south, also the brightness surpasses all the others. Sometimes you can see a reddish Mars, which also glows brighter many stars. But we will consider only real stars, not the planet. The star named the Sun either will not consider it - it is out of competition, but only the day, and not at night.

UPD: For those who ask questions that the very bright star of yellowish color shines in the morning in the east in December 2020, before the sunrise - this is Venus, the planet closest to us. Another bright star of reddish color in the south is Mars, the confrontation of which occurred on October 13, 2020.

More about Venus ...

In total, there are no one dozen bright stars in the sky, many of whom are in the southern hemisphere. But from the territory of Russia, many constellations are visible, located south of ecliptic and those considered to be southern, so some bright stars of the southern constellations are visible and from us. Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky, located in the Southern Constellation of Big Psa, is clearly visible in Russia from late autumn until spring.

Sirius - the brightest star in the night sky

Alpha Big Psa is the brightest not only in his constellation, but in general in the sky. It would seem that it should be a very big and hot star, since she shines stronger than everyone. In fact, it is not so, just Sirius is not very far from us, compared to most of the other stars - only 8.6 light years before it. This is one of the closest stars, therefore so noticeable.

Sirius is very well noticeable in winter. This is the brightest star at the night sky in his southern part, lower and left the constellation Orion. By the spring, she shifts to the West and rises even below. In the summer is not visible.

Syryus System in Space Engine Simulator

Syryus System in Space Engine Simulator

Sirius - Double Star. The main component is a hot white star, twice as much as the Sun and 1.7 times more. This star is not a particularly noteworthy. It awaits ordinary fate - 660 million years she will become a red giant, and then with white dwarf.

At a distance of just 20 astronomical units from this star, there is another - white dwarf, a very curious object. This star is called a puppy and it makes turnover in orbit for 50 years. The size of this star is very small - like the earth, but her mass like the sun. The density of its substance is enormous - the volume in the matchbox will weigh a ton.

Sirius B - the first white dwarf, open scientists. Back in 1844, the German astronomer and mathematician Bessel noticed that Sirius moves in the sky not directly, but "wounded." He explained this to the indignation of a massive satellite, and in 1862 this was confirmed - Sirius B was discovered by Alvan Graham in the largest 46-centimeter refractor telescope. This has become an important event, as it confirmed theoretical laws in practice.

This White Dwarf in the sky is a star of 8.6 m with brightness, and when it is at the greatest distance from Sirius A, it can be easily found even in a small telescope. By the way, now just that time when the distance between the components is maximally, but it is already beginning to decrease.

Other bright stars

In ancient times, Sirius was of great importance - when he appeared in the morning, the Egyptian priests knew that the summer solstice was coming, and the spill of the Nile and the summer heat fell. Sirius was called "dog star", and in Latin it sounds like "Kanis". Therefore, the summer heat, which foreshadowed the morning appearance of Sirius, meant rest from hard work - vacation, or "dog days." By the way, at this time, the fever developed in humans and cases of dog rabies were studied, so the name turned out to be quite reasonable.

In total, there are several dozen bright stars in the sky, which are allocated among others. All of them are different - some not much more than the sun, for example, Sirius is the brightest star in the sky. Toliman, Alpha Centauro, and the same as the sun. Some - amazing the imagination of giants, such as Betelgeuse.

All of them are at different distances, so their brightness has not yet been saying. For example, if instead of the Sirius instead of the Sun, this starring of a good star would just kind of land, instantly boil the oceans and turning them into steam. The red supergiant of Bethelgeuse and would absorb our planet at all.

The list of brightest stars on the earth's sky is presented in the table below.

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What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?Odnoklassniki.

The science Night sky full Incredible on the beauty of objects

, To see which can be even naked eye. If you do not have special equipment to look at the sky - not trouble, some amazing things can be seen without it.

Impressive comets, bright planets, distant nebula, shimmering stars and constellations - all this can be found in the night sky. The only thing important to remember Light contamination of large cities . In the city, light from lanterns and windows of buildings is so strong that all the most interesting on the night sky It turns out hidden

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

So, to see these amazing things, you should go beyond the city. Very hot neighbor land - Venus may rightfully be proud of the title the brightest planet of the sky . The brightness of the planet is associated with well-reflective clouds, as well as the fact that it is near the ground. Venus approximately 6 times brighter than other land neighbors - .

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

Mars and Jupiter Venus brighter any other objects on the night sky, except, of course, the moon. Its maximum visible value is equal around 5 . For comparison: the visible magnitude of the full moon is equal to -13 , that is, it is about .

1600 times brighter Venus In February 2012, there was a unique compound of the three brightest objects of the night sky: Venus, Jupiter and Moon

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

that could be seen immediately after sunset. The largest of the famous science of stars - VY Big PSA , red hypergigant type M, which is located at a distance of approximately 3800 light years

From the Earth in the constellation of the Big PSA. Scientists appreciated that the star VY is a large PSA may be in more than 2100 times more sun sizes

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

. If you put it in a sunny system, then the edges of this monster will be around the Orbit of Saturn. The surface of hypergigant can hardly be called noticeably outlined, since this star is approximately 1000 times less dense

than the atmosphere of our planet at sea level. VY Big PSA is a source A large number of disputes

In the scholar of the world, as the assessment of its size goes beyond the boundaries of the current star theory. Astronomers believe that the star Vy is a large dog for the following 100 thousand years

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

He will explode and die, turning into the "hypernova" and allocating a tremendous amount of energy, and this energy will be greater than any other supernova. In 1997, astronomers, with the help of the NASA-telescope, NASA "Hubble" found out that the bright of famous stars is a star, located at a distance .

25 thousand light years from us This star highlights 10 million times more

Energy than the sun. In size, this star is also much more exceeding our star.

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

If you put it in the center of the solar system, it will take the orbit of the Earth. Scientists suggested that this major star, located in the Sagittar Constellation, creates a gas cloud around him, which is called Nebole "Pistol"

. Thanks to this nebula, the star also received the name of the star Pistol. Unfortunately, this amazing star is not observed from the land due to the fact that the dust clouds of the Milky Way are hiding. The brightest on the night sky star , which is the brightest star of the Lira's constellation, has a visible stellar value equal to 0. Any star, luminous brighter than Vega, will have a negative star magnitude. For example, You can call a star located in the constellation of large dogs. Sirius Star Value is

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

-1.44. You can watch the Sirius from any point of the Earth, except the northern regions. The brightness of the star is explained not only to her High luminosity , but also a relatively close distance. Sirius is located approximately In 8.6 light years

From the solar system.

The most beautiful star in the sky Many stars are known for their brilliance of different colors, for example, a system consisting of blue and orange stars. Albireo. , or bright red star giant .

Antares However, the most beautiful of all visible with the naked eye of the stars can be called a red-orange star MJ Cefhea which is also called the "Grenade Star of Herschel" in honor of its first explorer, British astronomer .

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

William Herschel Red giant MJ CEFEVA is located in the Cefhea constellation. it Thinking variable star and its maximum brightness varies from 3.7 to 5.0

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

. The color of the star is also changing. Most of the time MJ CFERE saturated orange-red, but sometimes it acquires a strange purple shade. Although MJ Tsefay is a little dull, her Reddish tint

It can be noticed even with a naked eye, and if you take a simple binoculars, the spectacle will be more impressive.

Long Space Object The farthest object visible to the naked eye is Andromeda galaxy which includes about 400 billion stars and which noticed in the 10th century an ancient Persian astronomer Al Sufi.

. He described this object as a "small cloud". Even if you arm binoculars or amateur telescope, Andromeda will still look like a little stretched blurred spot . But still she is very impressive, especially if you know that the light from her gets to us !

2.5 million years By the way, Andromeda Galaxy is approaching our Milky Way galaxy. Astronomers rated that these two galaxies will connect about 4 billion years old

And Andromeda can be observed in the form of a bright disk in the night sky. However, it is not yet known whether the wishes to look at the sky through so many years will remain on Earth. A source:

https://www.infoniac.ru/news/samye-krasivye-ob-ekty-nochnogo-neba-kotorye-stoit-uvidet.html

Quiz 13.12.19 What is the brightest star at the night sky?
  • Of the three listed objects, the star is one. This is Sirius. He told a lot about the father of Nina Solomatina in the film "Carnival".
  • Sirius, well known, this is the brightest star in the sky.
  • Sirius is a star in the constellation of Big Psa.
  • Syrius is particularly well distinguished during the winter months in the northern hemisphere.
  • In the southern hemisphere, on the contrary, Sirius is visible in the summer months when it is located north of the polar circle.
  • Star Sirius, this is one of the stars closest to us, so we see her so bright.
  • From the sun, the star is located about 8.6 light years.
  • The star value of Sirius is 1,46. It's a pretty big star, besides, it is close

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?Located to Earth, and astrophotographs can make his photos. What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

  1. As I know, more from the school program on astronomy - Sirius has always been a bright star. I even remember how we were looking for him at the night sky. But the teacher said that it is possible to do this only in winter, because Sirius is not visible in the summer. But now, just winter and you too can look at a clear night sky and see the brightest stars. It's very simple and here's a hint
  2. And you need to look for this: first find the conclusion of Orion with the "Belt of Orion" from three stars, and as soon as you confront the face of Orion's constellation, then the Sirius radiating the brightest light will immediately see it.

The correct answer in the quiz, today, December 13, 2019 in the first square with the letter "" A "- Sirius. What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?1,47m - this is the magnitude of the shine of this star, which the inhabitants of such a state were worshiped, like - Egypt, and a big dog, constellation, where it is located. There she is the same (as in all the sky night) bright. This feature is not necessarily due to the fact that it is so big (although the luminosity is more than our sun in a quarter of one hundred times), and simply its distance to our system (solar) is relatively closer compared to others, much larger in the universe of the stars. It is interesting, but it was an assumption, back in 1844, which is actually not one, but as many as two stars visible (referred to as a) and invisible (referred to as c). Who else did not guessed, this is Sirius, and it became true to be the option under the letter A. The name of this star is known not only to those who study astronomy or is interested in it. We repeatedly heard her name in various films and books, it is familiar with her name to all fans of fiction. What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?The star, which is asked in the question of the quiz, is part of the constellation of Big PSA. She really is not the most brightest, but it is precisely that it seems from the point of view of the earthly observer. It seems to us the brightest for the reason that it is relatively close to the ground. It is removed from us about 8.60 light years. The name of this star is Sirius. It is located under the letter "A" in today's issue. You can choose this option in order to get bonuses. What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?Quiz from the thirteenth December on the popular site contains three questions, one of which is about the bright star, which burns in the sky at night. But about this star, so many romantic and fantastic stories have been created that it was not possible to choose the correct answer. Moreover, in school on astronomy, we taught it. My answer was such - this is Sirius. He turned out to be faithful - and he is in the screenshot:

  • ** Sirius is well known to astronomers. For example, it was found that this star is repeated (25 times!) Brighter our luminaries - the Sun. At the night sky, Sirius, indeed, stands out for its brightness. Therefore, choose the answer under the letter "A" (the first picture is Sirius). This question is the answer is quite simple and known to most people. The brightest star is mentioned in novels, in films, and just this is a famous fact. However, for the urban resident, this fact is not particularly interesting, since in the city to watch the stars will not work, prevents the coverage of streets and advertising signs. For the site a big question. At the night sky, for a resident of the northern hemisphere, the brightest star is Sirius. It is better visible in winter for the Constellation of Orion. Star flickering when her strong light passes through the atmosphere. Sirius Star class A, two times more than our Sun, but twenty five times brighter. It is located at a distance of 8.6 light years from us. The answer to the Question Quiz - Sirius.
  • I could not find on the Internet and Star Atlas Star Felis.
  • As, however, the stars Castla.
  • Therefore, it remains only to recognize, one single and brightest star of the Northern Hemisphere of Star Sky.
  • This star beauty is very photogenic - photographers can remove it in the photo and there are a lot of her portraits.
  • This is of course the star α from the constellation of the racing pings - Sirius.

It is impossible to say that this is the biggest, but it is too closely located to our planet to look so bright. By the way, in ancient Egypt, Sirius had a divine status. And by his position in the sky, the priests predicted the exact time of the spill of the Nile. The answer is the star in Square a - Sirius. Another question from quiz asks users about the brightest star, which shines on the night sky. There are only three answers. And you need to call the right answer. And this is Sirius Star, which has long been studied by specialists. They established the fact that the star this brighter, and Sirius always stands out in the night sky. And you need to choose an option for a response, under the letter A, it's a picture of Sirius. This star is often written, it is constantly studying. And during the time of ancient Egypt, this star had the status of a deity, she was worshiped. Sometimes thanks to such questions, you can recall your knowledge. This star is 20 times brighter and 20 times more than it, so it shines brightly in our dark sky, despite the fact that it is removed from us to a distance of a little more than eight and a half light years. In fact, this double star, the one in question is called alpha and is indicated by the α sign, Alpha also denotes that it is the largest in any constellation. Our star is Yavl. Alpha Star in the constellation of large dogs. This is certain Sirius. Well, the brightest star in the universe of lovers of the night sky and astronomy, of course, will certainly not give any difficulties to answer this question, since the mention of this star can be found in many literary works, then many people in some way or other were most often Mention Option A. , which is the brightest star of the Lira's constellation, has a visible stellar value equal to 0. Any star, luminous brighter than Vega, will have a negative star magnitude. For example, exactly

And Andromeda can be observed in the form of a bright disk in the night sky. However, it is not yet known whether the wishes to look at the sky through so many years will remain on Earth. , the brightest star of all, and will be the right answer to today's question of the Quiz. Do you know the answer?

http://www.bolshoyvopros.ru/questions/3426154-viktorina-131219-kakaja-samaja-jarkaja-zvezda-na-nochnom-nebe.html

What is the brightest star in the sky?

What is the brightest star in the sky? Google will tell us that this is Sirius, and will be right, but only partly.

Sirius is really the brightest star in the night sky, but this is just because it is at the same time one of the stars closest to us: from the sun to Sirius - only 8.6 light years: on astronomical standards, he lives not even in a "neighboring apartment ", And in another room of our.

It is worth adding that Sirius slowly drifts towards the Sun, which is why its brightness in the near future will increase.

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?However, in general, by the standards of our galaxy, Sirius is a very modest phenomenon: being a white star spectral class A, he only twice as much more than our sun. More precisely, it concerns the component of Sirius visible to us: in fact, it is a double star, the second component of which is the White Dwarf - "Mummy" is older, who has already learned his stars.

The relative dimensions of the stars of the main sequence depending on the spectral type: Sun - G, Sirius - A.

But in second place in the ranking of the brightest stars of the night sky, something really interesting is located even on an overwhelming scale: this is the star canopus.

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

Canopus refers to white-yellow supergigant (spectral class F). It is about 10 times heavier than the sun, about 65 times more and shines approximately 15 thousand times stronger.

True, in our sky, Canopus is not visible: he is familiar to the residents of southern heraper. In the North Sky, the closest and most famous "relative" (another yellow-white supergiant) is a polar star. It's funny that during seaming in the southern hemisphere these stars are equally used as standard landmarks.

Canopus is located at a distance of 310 light years, and because of this, only the insignificant part of his light comes to us. It is at the same distance as Sirius, in brightness, he would probably except the moon. Alas, life in this sense is unfair, and we are deprived of such an impressive spectacle.

A polar star is noticeably less ("only" 6 solar masses, 37 solar radius and 2000 solar brightness), it is also located further - 440 light years, so that it is not even among the top ten nightnings of the night sky.

The largest star visible from the Earth is a blower.

It seems to us much less bright, through Sirius, Canopus, or, for example, Vega, but this is because it is very far away: almost 900 light years.

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

And in fact, the Rigel is a real monster: a blue supergiant, twice as heavy than canopus (almost 20 solar masses), is 75 times greater than the sun and almost ten thousand times more bright!

But there are stars in our galaxy, compared with which even the riglel seems to be dwarf. These are the so-called hypergigiments that can be hundreds of times more and in millions of times the sun.

The most famous of them is this keel, or Foramen - probably the largest and most bright star visible from the ground. This keel refers to the class of the so-called. Bright blue (spectral class O) variables, that is, stars that significantly change their brightness during observations.

This keel, apparently, has a mass of about 120 mass of the Sun, about 800 times more than our star. Thanks to this, she is known to astronomers from antiquity, although it is removed from us to the impressive 7.5 thousand light years.

This keel, as we have already said, is a variable star: Astronomers fix significant changes in its brightness over time.

So, at the beginning of the XIX century, this keel significantly increased its brightness in heaven, and in 1838 she published brightly observed from the earth - a very impressive result, taking into account the colossal distance dividing us. However, then she began to quickly lose their brightness, and by the beginning of the 20th century it became invisible to the armed eye.

Throughout the last century, its brightness remained at about the same level, undergoing minor fluctuations, but in 1995-1996 she began to shine almost twice as much, again becoming visible to the naked eye.

Such an unstable behavior of such supermassive stars is explained by the constant struggle between the gravity force seeking to compress, compact the star, and the pressure of the star radiation, aspiring, on the contrary, break it into parts.

At the peaks of the luminosity, the star actively throws its own substance into the surrounding space. Such processes occur in the sun (notorious solar flares and the following magnetic storms: the processes of reflection of the flow of charged particles of the magnetosphere of the Earth).

However, in the case of Hypergigants such as Etie Kiel, these processes have a very dramatic character: according to the estron counts, during the outbreak of the XIX century, it could lose at least 10% of its mass, i.e. Monslablighted gas equal to the mass of a dozen suns.

The consequence of this process was the cooling of a star and a decrease in its radiation: gravity again began to prevail and pull the part of the sprawl back to the star.

In the case of a keel, the physics of her life is complicated by the fact that she has a companion star - also quite massive (about 50 solar masses). Rounding around each other, these stars can exchange substance that, imposing on "own" processes inside each of the stars, can also lead to the change of luminosity.

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

The monsigate of this keel and its "companion" gas form a hot gas cloud, known as the nebula of the homunculus.

Such clouds surround other famous stars of these classes. Because of these (and other) clouds, many similar stars are in principle cannot be seen in the optical range (that is, even in the most powerful optical telescope).

They can be "considered" only in the infrared range - as, for example, another major star of our galaxy, a star of a pistol, or V4647 SGR. In theory, we would have to see her perfectly from the ground: she would have to be on 8-9 place in the list of the brightest stars of our sky.

Alas, it is completely obscured by clouds of cosmic dust.

The greater the star - the shorter the lifetime, she was rejected. If the Sun is allocated about 10-12 billion years, 5 of which have already passed, then this keel and other hypergigiments are likely to live no more than a million years.

At the same time, astronomers believe that this keel has already lived most of the deadline for her time: approximately after 10-20 thousand years it will become supernova, after which, apparently, collapsing in a black hole.

It is assumed that the outbreak of the eet of a keel as a supernova will be felt even on Earth: powerful radiation can fail the communication satellites.

And the biggest known today is a star known as R136A1. It is more than 300 times heavier than the Sun (twice as much as Etie Kiel and 15 times - Rigel) and shines about 10 million times stronger.

Thanks to this, we know about its existence, although it is already in the neighboring galaxy - Andromeda nebula, at a distance of 165 thousand light years. You can't see it with the unarmed eye, and even in an amateur telescope, it is not without difficulty can find a star cluster, part of which it is.

Prior to its discovery, it was believed that the stars of such a mass could not exist at all: it was assumed that the upper limit of the mass of a single star should be about 150 solar, and more massive objects collapse into a black hole in the early stages of their lives.

And Andromeda can be observed in the form of a bright disk in the night sky. However, it is not yet known whether the wishes to look at the sky through so many years will remain on Earth. However, the Universe does not get tired to present surprises to us. And this makes the process of studying it madly fascinating.

https://yuritkachev.livejournal.com/8377.html

What is the biggest star in the universe of her name

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?Do you know what the biggest star in the universe? The sun, which is the main luminaire and the basis of our planetary system, does not even come in the top ten of the largest and most brightest objects of outer space. At the same time, this rating constantly undergoes changes through the development of Astronomical research technologies.

Snapshot UY Shield

You will learn about the largest bright stars discovered at the moment. We will tell about their highlights and location, and these shining with the sun takting it.

The largest star from famous

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?The name of the biggest star in the Universe is a UY shield (Latin - UY Scuti). It is located in the constellation of the same name in 9.5 thousand light years from the solar system. The gigantic object was opened in 1860 by astronomers from the German city of Bonn.

UY shield

Physical parameters

The most huge star in the universe has a radius exceeding sunny 1708 times. And at the peak of ripple, it expands to 1900 suns. But despite its gigantic sizes, the UY shield is quite lightweight. It constantly loses a large amount of substance and at the moment its mass is equal to ten suns.

According to the brightness of the UY shield, in a second time, all outer space. According to this indicator, it exceeds it was 340 thousand times. But there was so much gas and dust around it that heeneevogenous to see the unarmed eye in the sky (11 levels of the visible starvation). At the same time, its brilliance is inconsistent, which makes the UY shield with a variable loss.

The most severe star

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?The first place on the pedestal of the most massive stars of the Universe occupies R136A1, located in the Tarantula nebula. This plasma area is located in the galaxy of a large magtel cloud removed from the Milky Way to 163 thousand light years.

R136A1

R136A1 was opened by the British astronomer of the Crowater and its research team in 2010. When studying the RMC 136A, they found an object of incredibly large sizes. Litched the largest in this formation, and in the entire observed one.

Characteristics of starvispolin

R136A1 is a bluepergigant. This is a rare discharge of stars with the largest dimensions, mass and brightness, but having a short life.

The mass of the starry magnifies the sunny is 315 times. This is one of the riddles for scientists, because It was rane that no luminaries can have a lot of more than 150 mass of the sun. Noeto, the rule is valid for primary celestial luminaires formed gelation of hydrogen clouds. R136A1 Most likely, formed by mergering big objects.

Read also more than the galaxy or universe?

The radius of this star is equal to 36 solar, and in brightness it exceeds the sun in almost 9 million times. Because of its sizes, the hypergigant throws up very powerful flows of ions similar to the solar wind. This makes it impossible to exist in bodies near her.

The lifespan of R136A1, as well as other shimes with a mass of 150 solar, is pleased with the short. After the reserves of hydrogen in the kernel, these space objects explode, forming hypernovy. The power of such an explosion exceeds the power of supernova more than 10 times.

At the same time, huge bursts of gamma radiation are formed. It is believed that it is the explosion of one of these hypernovy near the solar system led to the extinction of life on Earth about 450 million years ago.

"Death" of the most severe star through the universe, according to the calculations of astronomers, will not bring any harm to our planet.

The biggest star in our galaxy

With the largest famous star in the universe we figured out. But it is far from the ground and without the help of good optics it is impossible to detect in the night sky. In our galaxy, too, there are giant. He heads their list this keel. This unusual object is a system of two objects rotating around the common center of gravity.

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

The largest star of the Milky Way is located in the constellation of keel, which can be observed in the southern hemisphere of the starry sky. Light from her to Earth reaches 7,500 years.

The system of this keel is the consisting of two objects - blue hypergigant this keel A and the blue star η car b. The system component refers to variable luminaries, has a mass of 150s and a radius of about 800 solar.

At the same time, the luminaire quickly loses the starversion and will soon become supernova. η car b is 30 times harder and 20 times the forefree. The temperature of its surface exceeds 37 * 103 K.

In contrast to the base component, this component of the system this keel has been studied little.

Components of the system This keel differ significantly by weight and sizes. The main is the hypergigant this keel A is a huge star variable. It is heard sun 150 times and more almost 800 times. This is one of the most unstable bodies of outer space. She quickly loses its substance that will soon lead to a supernova explosion.

Read also what is outside the universe

The component B, or η Car B, refers to the spectral class of O. Its mass is equal to 30 masses of the Suns, the aradius exceeds solar 20 times. η Car B, as if satellite, rotates around the system component.

Due to the changeability of this keel, and the brightness of the entire system is constantly changing. The lamp luminosity fell on the 40s of the 19th century.

Then the most comfortable Milky Way shone the brighter of the Sun 50 million times. Then the occurrence of pseudo-route, which was 10 times decreasing the shine of this keel. At this line it is today.

The second component of the Sun brighter system is somewhat thousands of times.

The explosion of this keel and will not harm all living beings on the surface of the earth. However, this event may detained satellites in an near-earth orbit, as well as affect the thickness of the ozone layer of the atmosphere.

Top 10 giants

  • Objects, larger than the Sun in the metagalaxy lot. We will list only the 10 largest stars in the Universe:
  • UY shield.
  • VY large PSA is a hypergigant of the same name of the same name removed from the solar system by 1170 parses. The radius is 2,000 solar. In brightness exceeds our shining, 2,7000 times.
  • VV Cefhea - two-component starssist in the constellation Cefhea. Remote from the Earth for 5 thousand light years. Below to the group of red hypergigants. 1700 times more and 200,000 times brighter.
  • Mycefea is another major star Cefhea's constellation. Refers to the group of red-hypergigants. Radius - 1600 solar.
  • The v838 of the unicorn - removed from the ground for 20000 years of years. It has a variable luminosity. The size varies from 1200 to 1900radius of the Sun according to different groups of researchers.
  • WOH G64 - Red Support from constellations. To the solar system, the light from it comes in 163,000 years. Its size is -1540-2200 radius of our shining, and the luminosity is 500,000 suns.
  • V354 Cefhea - more than the sun at 690-1250 times brighter than it 400,000 times.
  • Ky Swan - located in the same name, located in 5 thousand light years from the ground. Her radius is 1450sun.
  • KW Sagittarius - a red supergigant exceeding our shone 1460 times.

And Andromeda can be observed in the form of a bright disk in the night sky. However, it is not yet known whether the wishes to look at the sky through so many years will remain on Earth. RW Cefhea is its sizes from 1250 to 1650 solar radii.

https://spaceworlds.ru/vselennaya/samaja-bolshaja-zvezda-vselennoj.html

The brightest star

The brightest star on the non-heavenly bright star in the northern hemispheam bright star in the most bright stars What star in the sky is the brightest?

This is not such a simple question as it seems. It depends on what to understand under the brightest star. If we talk about the brightest star in the sky, which we see is one thing.

And if under the brightness to understand the amount of light that the star emits is completely different. Because the brightest star in the sky may be so bright simply because it is closer than the larger and vibrant stars.

Therefore, when they talk about the brightest star in the sky, it is necessary to distinguish between the visible and absolute brightness of the stars. They are customary to be called according to the visible and absolute star magnitude. The visible star magnitude is the degree of brightness of the star at the night sky when surveillance from the Earth.

Absolute Star Value is the brightness of the star from the distance of 10 parses.

The smaller the value of the star magnitude, the Star brighter. For example, the absolute (bolometric) stars of the sun is + 4.8m, and the visible is -26.7M.

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?The brightest star in the sky

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

The brightest star in the sky is Sirius from the constellation of Big Psa. The visible starry value of Sirius is -1.46m. The abusive star magnitude of this brightest star in the sky is 1.4m. The SIRUS, Sirius is a double star, which consists of dim white dwarf (Sirius B), which is a little easier than the sun and more Bright star (Sirius a), which is two times the massive than our sun. Look at the photo of Sirius made by the Hubble telescope. A huge bright star is Sirius A, and the tiny white point on the left below the main star is Sirius B. Thanks to the fact that Sirius is the brightest star in heaven, he takes a prominent place in the presentation of many peoples on the structure of the heavenly sphere. Where is Sirius? Finding Sirius is quite simple. It is best to do it in winter, since Sirius is not visible in summer. First we find the Constellation of Orion with the famous "Belt Orion" of three stars. Then you need to stand face to the Constellation of Orion and find the brightest star below and left it.

The brightest star in the northern hemisphere The brightest star of the northern hemisphere of the sky

- Arctic. This is the brightest star in the constellation of Volopasas. Although Arkurkur is the brightest star in the northern hemisphere, it is the fourth in the brightness of the star in the sky.

The first three places are occupied by Sirius, Canopus and Alpha Centauro, who are in the southern hemisphere of the sky.

Here it is necessary to explain that in our northern latitudes we see and part of the southern hemisphere of the heavenly sphere. Therefore, in medium latles, the brightest star of the sky is visible - Sirius, but it belongs to the southern hemisphere of the heavenly sphere.

The further south, the more the stars of the southern hemisphere are available to us, despite the fact that the stars of the northern hemisphere are only lowered, but do not disappear completely.

And from the equator you can simultaneously observe all the stars of the southern and northern hemisphere of the sky.

The brightest star in the universe

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?The brightest star in the universe is the star R136A1. The star is in the cluster R136, located in the Tarantul Nebula, which is also known for the NGC 2070 number.

  • The radius of this star is equal to 36 radii of our sun. Mass R136A1 - 265 of the mass of the sun.
  • The visible star magnitude of the brightest star in the universe is 12.77m, and the absolute star value of this giant is -12.5m.

By the way, this brightest star in our sizes in size is still inferior to the largest of famous stars - the star of the UY shield.

Well, finally the luminosity of the star R136A1 - it is equal to the luminosity of 8,700,000 SOLC!

Human eye with difficulty distinguishes the stars up to 7m on a completely black sky. But it is usually believed that we see the stars up to 6m, adjusted to the artificial illumination of the sky and on the average visual visibility of observers.

The Tarantul Nebula is located in a large magtel cloud, which is unfortunately not visible from the territory of Russia. In addition, the star R136A1 is at a distance of 165,000 light years, therefore it is not visible to the naked eye.

But if someone is south of 20 ° Northern latitude with a telescope with a diameter of 150mm, it may well try to see this largest star in the Universe, famous science today.

Here is its coordinates (Epoch J2000): Direct climb: 05 h 38m 42.43c

Declination: -69 ° 06 '02.2 "

Names of the brightest stars

Below are the names of the 20 brightest stars that we can see in the sky with a unarmed look. The list of the most bright stars is given in descending order of the visible star magnitude.

DOS, SV. years

Visibility in Russia
. For multiple stars, a total starry value is given. Names of the brightest stars in the sky Starrym. Spectrum. Class Heavenly hemisphere
Visible passed The sun 0.0000158. -26,72. 4.8. G2V.
1everywhere Sirius (α big dog) Sirius (α large. PSA) -1.46 1,4. -1.46 A1VM.
2In addition to the extreme north Canopus (α keel) Canopus (α keel) -0,72 -5.53 -1.46 A9II.
3Not visible Toliman (α Centaurus) Toliman (α Centaurus) -0.27 4.06. -1.46 A9II.
4G2V + K1V. ArkurTur (α Volopasa) 34. -0.04 -3.3 -0.05 G2V.
5K1.5iiip. Vega (α lira) Vega (α lira) 0,03 (MC) 0,6 -0.05 G2V.
6A0VA. Capella (α over) 42,2 41. -0.5 -0.05 G2V.
7G6III + G2III. Rigel (β Orion) ~ 870. 0.12 (MC) -7 -1.46 G2V.
8B8iae. PRESTION (α of small PSA) 11,4. PRESTION (α of small PSA) 2.6 -0.05 G2V.
9F5IV-V. Ahernar (α Eridan) 139. 69. -1.3 -1.46 A9II.
0.46 B3VNP. Bethelgei (α Orion) ~ 530. 0.50 (MC) -5,14 -0.05 G2V.
M2iab. eleven Hadar (β Centaurus) ~ 400. 0.61 (MC) -4.4 -1.46 A9II.
B1III. 12 Altair (α eagle) sixteen 0.77 2,3. -0.05 G2V.
A7VN. 13 AKRAS (α South Cross) ~ 330. 0.79 -46 -1.46 A9II.
B0.5IV + B1VN. fourteen Aldebaran (α Taurus) 60. -0.04 0.85 (MC) -0.05 G2V.
K5III. fifteen Antares (α of Scorpion) ~ 610. 0.96 (MC) -5,2 -1.46 M1.5IB.
Altair (α eagle) in the south, partially average latitudes Specker (α virgin) 250. 0.98 (MC) -3,2 -1.46 B1V.
In addition to the islands of the Ice Ocean 17. Pollux (β twins) 40. 1,14 0,7 -0.05 G2V.
K0iiib. eighteen Fomalgaut (α South Fish) 22. 1,16 2.0 -1.46 M1.5IB.
A3VA. nineteen Mimosa (β southern Cross) ~ 290. 1.25 (MC) -4,7 -1.46 A9II.
B0.5III. twenty Denb (α swan) ~ 1550. 1.25. -7,2 -0.05 G2V.

A2ia.

Nikolai Kurdyapin, kosmoved.ru  

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And Andromeda can be observed in the form of a bright disk in the night sky. However, it is not yet known whether the wishes to look at the sky through so many years will remain on Earth. https://kosmoved.ru/samaya-yarkaya-zvezda.shtml

And from the equator you can simultaneously observe all the stars of the southern and northern hemisphere of the sky.

The brightest star in the universe, known today by scientists - R136A1. In the sky, it looks like a very dull star brightness of only 12.84 m, and it is possible to see it only in a fairly powerful telescope with aperture from 150 mm. Why is the brightest star in the world not shine as follows? Because it is very far away, any other from such a distance we could not see at all.

No need to confuse the brightest star in the sky - Sirius, and the brightest in general. Sirius is only twice as much as the sun and almost doubled it. And such bright it is just because it is located near us - to it only 8.6 light years and this is one of our nearest neighbors. But we want to learn about the brightest star in the universe, which shines so that it is difficult to imagine.

The brightest star in the Universe - R136A1

Supergiant Betelgeuse, Alpha Orion, is so huge that, located in the center of the Solar System, could absorb all the planets up to Jupiter, radiates light 60,000 times greater than the sun. Although he is somewhat colder and refers to red superdigants, it is one of the largest stars, and its radiating light surface is huge.

Also huge and the distance to Bethelgeuse - more than 700 light years, but it is still one of the brightest stars in our sky. Can you imagine the entire power of the light flux that emits this gigantic star?

But Bethelgeuse is just a dwarf next to the R136A1 star, open in 2010 in the cluster of Tarantula, in a large magtel cloud. Distance to her 165,000 light years.

Imagine a star that is in another galaxy shines with such a force that is visible from the ground, even if the middle amateur telescope! And it shines 8700,000 times brighter than the sun.

8 million 700 thousand times brighter!

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

Size comparison / Yellow star - Sun, blue - R136A1.

R136A1 - Blue hypergigant, and this is a very rare class of huge and very hot stars. Its surface temperature is about 53,000 K, and with a size of 36 solar, its surface is simply a colossal area. This is a huge spotted to the blue ball emitting an incredible amount of light.

This star is not only the brightest in the universe, known by scientists, but also the greatest. For a long time it was believed that the star could have a maximum mass of 150 solar, but R136A1 refutes this theory, as weighs 315 times more than the sun! But she quickly loses the substance, and at birth she weighed as 320 suns.

So hot and the massive star generates a very powerful star wind and loses the substance.

In addition to visible light, it powerfully radiates in all ranges, and the inhabitable zone begins at a distance at 2950 A.E.

If there is a planet, located closer, then this is a lifeless scorched desert, deprived of the atmosphere, demolished by a powerful star wind. Yes, and then ultraviolet radiation is very strong.

What is the brightest star in heaven and in the universe?

So would look like the brightest star R136A1 over one of his planets. Screenshot from the Space Engine simulator.

The R136A1 star expects not only a bright life, but not even more vivid death. She will complete his life exploding with a hypernova - heavy duty supernova.

After a powerful even in the space scale of the explosion, even planets suffer from many neighboring stars. If there is some kind of life, she will die.

And from the brightest star in the Universe, nothing will remain, except for a quickly expanding gas cloud.

We were lucky that there is no such hypergigiant next to us. The life cycle of them is small - only a few million years, and the explosion of hypernova at the removal of several light years life on earth would not survive.

And Andromeda can be observed in the form of a bright disk in the night sky. However, it is not yet known whether the wishes to look at the sky through so many years will remain on Earth. https://astro-world.ru/samaya-yarkaya-zvezda-vo-vselennoj/

Top 10 brightest stars in the sky of our universe

Not only astronomers and romance love to look at the sky. We all raise the stars from time to time and admire them eternal beauty. That's why each of us sometimes interests, what a star in the sky is the brightest.

For the first time, the Greek scientist of hypan, and he suggested his classification for the first time, and he proposed his classification of 22nd centuries ago! He divided the stars into six groups, where the stars of the first magnitude are the brightest of those that he could observe, and the sixth - barely distinguished by the naked eye.

Is it worth saying that we are talking about relative brightness, and not about the real ability to glow? After all, in addition to the amount of light-produced light on the brightness of the star observed from the Earth, the distance from this star to the observation site affects. It seems to us that the brightest star in the sky is the sun, because it is closest to us. In fact, this is not a bright and very small star.

It is now used about the same system of distinction of stars in brightness, only improved. Vega was accepted for the reference point, and the brightness of the remaining stars is counted from its indicator. The brightest stars have a negative indicator.

So, we will consider precisely those stars that are recognized as the most bright on the improved scale of Hippark

10 Bethelgeuse (α Orion)

Red giant, the mass of which is 17 times more solar, closes the top 10 of the brightest night stars.

This is one of the most mysterious stars of the universe, because it is capable of changing its size, and its density remains unchanged. The color and brightness of the giant is different in different points.

If you imagine that Bethelgeuse will become our Sun, then everything that is located to the orbit of Mars will be absorbed by this gigantic star!

9 Ahernarnar (α Eridan)

Fatistant favorite, a blue star with a mass of 8 times more than the sun, looks very impressive and unusual.

Star Ahernar is flattened so that it resembles a rugby ball or a delicious Melon "Torpeda", and the reason for this is a fantastic speed of rotation, which is more than 300 km per second, approaching the so-called separation rate, in which the centrifugal force is made by the identical force of gravity.

A bright blue star, weighing seven times more than the sun, and brightness - 3,000 times more. This is one of the fastest rotating stars known to us! It rotates so quickly that its equatorial radius is 56% more polar, and the temperature on the pole - since it is much closer to the kernel - 10,000 to more. But it is quite far from us, in 139 light years.

This star can be observed only in the southern hemisphere.

8 PRESTION (α small PSA)

8. Press (α of small PSA)

One of the two "dog stars" is similar to Sirius and is that he is the brightest star of the constellation of a small dog (and Sirius is the brightest star of big dogs), and that it is also double.

Promotion A - a pale yellow star in size from about the sun. It gradually expands, and millions after 10 years will become an orange or red giant. According to scientists, the process is already going on, which indicates the unprecedented brightness of the star - it is more than 7 times brighter than the Sun, although it is similar in size and spectrum.

Promotion B - its satellite, dim white dwarf - is about the same distance from the SAID approach, like uranium from the sun.

Continuing the "dog" the topic - the name of the star means "in front of the dog"; This means that the priest appears in the sky before Sirius.

7 Rigel (β Orion)

7. Rigel (β Orion)

It is located at a distance of 870 light years, so less bright, but closer stars seem to us brighter. Meanwhile, the brightness of the sun is 130 thousand times and 74 times more in diameter!

The temperature on the rigel is so great that if something turned out from him at the same distance on which the land is relative to the sun, this object would immediately turn into a star wind!

Rigel has two satellite stars, almost imperceptible in the brightest radiance of white-blue supergiant.

6 Capella (α eating)

6. Capella (α over)

This is also a double star, and weaker from the pair is already done red, and the more bright is still white, although the hydrogen in her body, obviously, has already moved to helium, but still not ignited.

The name of the star means the goat, because the Greeks identified it with the goat Amalfia, who fed to Zeus.

5 Vega (α lira)

The brightest of the neighbors of the Sun can be observed in the territory of the entire northern hemisphere and almost the entire southern, except Antarctica.

Vega is loved by astronomers for becoming the second most studied star after the sun. Although still a lot of mysterious and in this "the most studied" star remains. What to do, the stars are in no hurry to reveal our secrets!

b This event occurred on July 16, 1850, as a photographer made an astronomer Harvard University

Around the entrances there is a large cloud of dust, the origin of which causes controversy from scientists. Also the discussion is the question of whether there are a planetary system.

4 The brightest star of the northern hemisphere - Arkurkur (α Volopasa)

In fourth place there is a brightest star of the northern hemisphere - Arctur, which in Russia can be observed anywhere throughout the year. However, he is visible in the southern hemisphere.

, and it is easy to find on the "handle" of the bucket of a big bear. It is only 37 light years from us, and brighter it is only three stars, all located in the southern hemisphere.

Arctic many times brighter: If you consider only a range perceived by a human eye, then a hundred more times, if you take the intensity of the glow as a whole, then 180 times! This is an orange giant with an atypical spectrum. Someday our sun will reach the same stage at which Arcturus is now.

3 Toliman (α Centaurus)

3. Toliman (α Centaurus)

This is a double, more precisely, even a triple star, but we see two of them as one, but the third, more dull, which is called proxima, as if separately. However, in fact, all these stars are not particularly bright, but are not far from us.

Therefore, I explain the love of science fiction to Alfe Centauri. Stanislav Lem (the creator of the famous "Solaris"), Azimov, chainline devoted this system to the page of their books; In the Alfa Centauri system, the actual film "Avatar" occurs.

2 Canopus (α keel) - the brightest star of the southern hemisphere

According to absolute indicators of the luminosity, Canopus is much brighter than Sirius, who, in turn, is much closer to Earth, so objectively it is the brightest night star, but for the distance (it is at a distance of 310 light years) it seems to be dimming Sirius.

Canopus - a yellowish supergiant, the mass of which is 9 times higher than the mass of the Sun, and it glows at 14 thousand times stronger!

Unfortunately, in Russia this star is impossible: it is not visible to the north of Athens.

But in the southern hemisphere canopus used to determine their location in navigation. In the same quality, alpha keel is used by our astronauts.

1 The brightest star of our starry sky - Sirius (α big dog)

1. Sirius (α large PSA)

The famous "dog star" (not in vain J. Rowling called so Her Hero, who turned into the PSA), the appearance of which in the sky meant for the ancient Scholyarov Beginning of the holidays (this word and means "dog days") - one of the closest to the solar system and Therefore, perfectly visible almost from any point of earth, except for the Far North.

Now it is believed that Sirius is a double star. Sirius A is twice the larger, and Sirius B is less. Although millions of years ago, apparently, it was the opposite.

Many nations left various legends associated with this star. The Egyptians considered the Sirius star of Isis, the Greeks - a dog of Orion, the Romans called His vacation ("Little Doggy"), in ancient Russian, this star was called Psyzka.

Ancient described Sirius as a red star, whereas we see a bluish glow. Scientists can explain it only to the assumption that all the ancient descriptions were compiled by people who saw Sirius low above the horizon when the color was distressed with water vapor.

Location Visible Value to the Sun
1, which is the brightest star of the Lira's constellation, has a visible stellar value equal to 0. Any star, luminous brighter than Vega, will have a negative star magnitude. For example, -1.46 8.6 light years
2Canopus -0.72 310 light years
3Toliman -0.27 4.3 light years
4Arctur. -0.05 36.7 light years
5Today we know the stars, the star magnitude of which is brighter than 1m. For instance, 0.03 25 light years
6Capella 0.08 42.2 light years
7Rigel 12.12. 870 light years
8PERSON 0.38 11.4 Lights
9Ahernar. 0.46 69 light years
0.46 Bethelgeuse 0.50 530 light years

And Andromeda can be observed in the form of a bright disk in the night sky. However, it is not yet known whether the wishes to look at the sky through so many years will remain on Earth. https://vsesravnenie.ru/top/priroda/10-samyh-yarkih-zvezd-na-nebe-nashej-pneebe-nashej-vselennoj.html

This note is a reference book for ten bright stars at the night sky and some related objects, ordered by their relative location in the heavenly sphere.

Stellar Neighborhood.

In the previous article "Astronomy with binoculars: what can be seen on the starry sky, except stars?" We talked about several "unusual" objects of deep space, which nevertheless can be considered with the help of binoculars, that is, having reasonable (up to +9 m- +10 mOr so) the value of the visible star magnitude. This time, the task is simplified before the description of the bright stars, which are localized in the heavenly sphere without optical tools according to characteristic asterisms (recognizable groups of stars).

The brightest stars for the observer on Earth are located in the nearest galactic surroundings, at distances to several hundred light years. The distribution of such stars is not quite accidentally due to the local galactic structures of the same scale, for example, is tied to the plane of the Milky Way or the "Gould's belt". Also, the areas of the appearance of bright stars correlate with the clouds of the interior gas, as can be seen on the example of the Orion nebula, so it is not very logical on the basis of brightness. This list is better to consider as a mnemonic trick when selecting information, as was done in another article of this series, where "strange space objects" were chosen on the principle of location in the constellations of the zodiac.

one. Rigel

RA: 05H 14M 32S, DEC: -08 ° 12'06 ", MAG 0.13 m

Orion Constellation by Akira Fujii
Orion's constellation: Rigel (bottom) and Bethelgeuse (from above on the left). Photo - Akira Fujii.

Orion map

Rigel , or Beta Orion. - The brightest in the constellation Orion and the seventh star brightness at the night sky at a distance of 860 light years. In the sky looks like a blue hygigant of spectral class B, but in a small telescope or binoculars you can distinguish its paired component. It is assumed that the system is a quadruple, or at least a triple. Home Star, or Rigel A - Supergiant with a mass in 21 solar mass, and Rigel B (perhaps, these are two stars BA and BB) and C - white-blue subcarlics of the main star sequence with a mass of about two solaries. In addition to the Rigel, on this section of the sky and about the same distance there are several bright stars and nebulae. All of these attractions make up the Constellation of Orion with a characteristic Abris located in the Heavenly Equator.

Many bright stars near the sun are located more or less in the plane of the Milky Way, and even on this list, more stars turned out to be in the southern hemisphere or near the Heavenly Equator: only two stars out of ten have a noticeable northern decline. The same refers to near "The objects of deep space" - all sorts of nebulae, star closures, etc. This is not by chance. The specificity of the distribution through the sky of these objects is determined by the special local structure of the galaxy sleeve. Nearby looks like a perturbation in the form of "waves", or "rowani" on a galactic disk, which takes part of the bright stars and interstellar gas-pepped clouds higher or lower than the plane of the galaxy, shifting them in different directions towards the Milky Way arc in heaven. Such a visible structure since the XIX century is called

Gould belt

. Recently it turned out that it is part of a larger wave structure - for her offered the name

Rarcliff waves

. It exists about 50-60 million years and is caused by some major perturbation in this part of the galaxy. We wrote more about this before

.

Gould's Belt.
Gould belt. The axis of the rotation of the Earth is inclined in our direction, the center of the Galaxy is directed from us.

On the scale of several hundred light years, it manifests itself in the fact that the sky is visible belt Of the bright young stars and intensive stars, inclined at an angle of 20 ° to the plane of the Milky Way. The sun is somewhat displaced to one of its edges, and the plane of the solar system is tilted in relation to the galaxy disk so that our neighbor is facing our belt South Hemisphere - Therefore, in the south of visible bright stars more.

If this wave was not, many bright stars and clouds would be lost against the background of the Milky Way. Orion's constellation is an indicative example of a set of such objects, among which are young very bright stars ("OB-Associations"), clusters and gas-pepped clouds (Orion nebula). This set of numerous nebulaes in Orion turned out to be below A galactic disk and thus shifted to the south - just at the Heavenly Equator. On the other side of the sky, structures in the constellation of Scorpio - OB-Association of Scorpion-Centaurus in the southern hemisphere, including the bright star of Antares (fifteenth in brightness in the sky) have similar properties. The rackliff wave "carried out" these structures on the other side of the galactic plane. As a result, the constellation turned out to be north than the arc of the Milky Way, and due to this it became visible from the northern hemisphere. In addition, these structures in Scorpio were closest to us.

Milky Way, Orion and Scorpius
The constellation of Orion and Scorpion with respect to the Milky Way.

2. Bethelgeuse

RA: 05H 55M 10S DEC: + 07 ° 24'25 ", MAG +0.5 m

Winter Triangle by Akira Fujii
Winter triangle: Betelgeuse, Sirius (below) and a priest. Hubble / ESA / Akira Fujii.

Winter Triangle Map.

Bethelgeuse - Star with Variable Brightness (Visible Star Value varies from 0 mup +16 m) In the constellation Orion (Alpha Orion) at a distance of about 700 light years. It closes the top ten of the brightest stars, and stands out in the sky with a reddish tint, unlike the hot white-blue stars of Orion.

This is the biggest star from the visible to the unarmed eye: in the solar system, its radius would reach somewhere before the orbit of Jupiter. Accordingly, she became the first star after the Sun, which at the beginning of the 20th century began to measure the transverse dimensions, and in general to perceive the star not only as a point object. Betelgeuse is a red supergigant, which is at the last stage of evolution, which should end with a supernova explosion. Such an inevitable event is expected the other day, that is, in the next few thousand or tens of thousands of years. In the news, including Russian, several times have met the assertion that the explosion of the star is expected in the next week. Probably such notes were obtained as a result of rewriting some astronomical news and misunderstanding with the authors of the object notes. So far, it is impossible to predict this event, all the more accuracy of the day, it is impossible. In the vicinity of the Solar System, there are several more supergiant stars that can explode as a supernovae of this type (Specker, Antares, Rigel, etc.), and several such explosions are described in historical time.

3. Sirius

RA: 06H 45M 09S, DEC: -16 ° 42'58, Mag -1.46 m

Close Up of Sirius by Akira Fujii
Sirius. Photo - Akira Fujii.

, which is the brightest star of the Lira's constellation, has a visible stellar value equal to 0. Any star, luminous brighter than Vega, will have a negative star magnitude. For example, - the brightest star in the sky after the sun and one of the nearest at a distance of 9 light years in the constellation of Big PSA ( α CMA. ). Sirius is so bright that under certain conditions it can be observed and the day. In the middle of the XIX century, it was found that it is a double star. The main component visible to the naked eye, or Sirius A - a star with a mass of twice as much as the sun, and a steam star - White Dwarf. Because of the proximity to the solar system, it was one of the first stars, which at the beginning of the 18th century E. Galley opened their own movement, that is, moving around the heavenly sphere, which can be fixed tools for reasonable time (not over millions of years). The apparent "immobility" of the stars on the rotating heavenly sphere due to the long distances to them for a long time was a serious natural science argument against the heliocentric picture of the world, even without reference to the dogmas of theology (for details, see the article on the link). Then it turned out that the star moved through the heavenly sphere half a degree (about the diameter of the moon) compared to its coordinates from the Almagest catalog Ptolemy (II St.N.). He received similar results for several close stars. Further, in the middle of the XIX century, Sirius became one of the first stars, which had a radial (towards us or from us) the speed component for the Doppler displacement of spectral lines - the method that is now used everywhere for different objects, including exoplans.

four. PERSON

RA: 07H 39M 18S, DEC: + 05 ° 13'30, MAG +0.34 m

Winter Triangle From Taganai Natural Park
Winter triangle (right at the bottom; Sirius is a bright star in the lower right corner). On the right - the constellation of Orion, in the upper right corner, the clusters of Pleiad and Hiad are visible. The bright object is almost in the center - this is Jupiter. View from the Taganai Natural Park. Photo: I. Sevostyanov.

PERSON - The brightest star in the constellation of Small Psa (Canis Minor) and the eighth brightness at the night sky at a distance of 11 light years. The star system here is also double, the main component refers to the class F5 - white-yellow subgigant in the almost final stage of evolution (before the step of expansion and transformation in the red giant), and the pair component is white dwarf, it is hardly distinguishable without a strong telescope.

Zodiac and Right Ascension
Assessment of the visibility of the object at the time of year.

Bethelgeuse, Sirius and a traffic make up recognizable asterism, called Winter triangle . It can be noted that the Milky Way passes through it, so that the stars lie directly on his "shores" - the pattern of the distribution of the bright stars already described above. The name indicates a time when it is better visible at the night sky. It is also easy to understand the celestial coordinates of objects. Recall how this is done on the example of a simple task. More about the system of celestial coordinates is written in the insertion to the previous article ("Astronomy with binoculars ..."). All three stars are located near heavenly equator That is, they have small decline values ​​(DEC) near zero. This means that the stars half the time of day are spent above the horizon and half - under it. The value of their second coordinate is direct ascent (RA), an analogue of the earthly longitude - from 6 to 8 hours, approximately, like the zodiac constellation twins. "The best" observation time will come when these stars will ride с Sunset Sun; ideally - when the sun will be on opposite Side of the Heavenly Equator, that is, to have a direct climb of 6 + 12 = 18 hours. Recall that the sun has a direct climb of 0 hours on the day of the spring equinox (22 or 23 March, or, as they write in horoscopes, the "sun in the fish"), and during the year makes a circle across the sky, increasing it for about two hours every month That is, passing consistently through the constellation of the zodiac. Winter Circle.The value of 18 hours is ¾ of the circle, which just corresponds to the point of winter solstice, that is, the end of December. It turns out that ideal conditions when you can observe a winter triangle at least all night, come somewhere by the end of autumn and throughout the winter months. The same construction can be performed for two other star triangles, which will be written next. Instead of a winter triangle, the "winter hexagon" or "circle" is also considered in different versions, including neighboring characteristic stars - Rigel, Aldebaran, Chapel, and others. As can be seen, they all turn out to be near the arc of the Milky Way.

five. Ahernar.

RA: 01H 37M 43S, DEC: -57 ° 14'12, MAG +0.4 m

Achernar by Akira Fujii
Ahernar (below). The nebula on the left below is a large magtel cloud. On the left edge are also visible canopus and sirius, in the upper left corner of the Constellation of Orion. Photo - Akira Fujii.

Achernar Map.

Ahernar. - The brightest star in the constellation Eridan at a distance of 140 light years. This is a white-blue class B giant, and the hottest of ten bright stars with a surface temperature of 10 - 20,000 K, respectively, visually the very blue of them in color. It has recently been found that this is a double star, which has a relatively small satellite - star, twice more massive than the sun, and with a period of system circulation about 14 years.

Ahernar is standing out that it is very quickly rotating around its axis: the equatorial speed of rotation is about 300 km / s, so the star is strongly superfluous - its equatorial diameter is one and a half times more than polar due to centrifugal force (for comparison: due to rotation around Its axis, the Earth is compressed at the poles by about 20 km, and the suction of the sun is only 0.001%). As a consequence, the stars of the star is intensely ended in the midwifery, and forms a shell of gas and plasma, which manifests itself in the form of excessive luminescence in the infrared band.

The name of the star denotes the "end of the river" and indicates the extreme point of the stylized image of the river (Eridan). But Ahernar is much lower than heavenly equator, and from Europe is visible above the horizon only in southern latitudes (south of Tel Aviv). In addition, due to the precession of the earth's axis, the star was previously even further in the south, and in the historical era (for example, in the time of Ptolemy in 100 G.N.), it could not observe it from Greece or even from Egyptian Alexandria. Therefore, the "river's end", the Greek astronomers first called another star in the same constellation, probably, it was a characteristic bright star of Akamar (θ Eridan) significantly norther on the "flow" of the river, just on its "bend", but in the time of "Almagest" Ptolemy is the southernmost star of the constellation visible above the horizon.

6. Canopus

RA: 06H 23M 57S, DEC: -52 ° 41'44 ", Mag: -0.74 m

Canopus.
Canopus (kille constellation). Snapshot with ISS.

Canopus map.

Canopus - The second on the brightness of the star of the night sky after Sirius in the Southern Constellation of Kiel ( Carina. ). This is a yellow star-supergigant in the late stage of evolution (spectral class A9 or F0) with a mass of 8-9 of the mass of the Sun at a distance of 310 light years. Like Agernar, it is located far in the south and from Europe is visible only from the latitude of south of Athens and in the south of the Pyrenean and Anatolian Peninsula. Due to the precession of the earth's axis, several thousand years ago he was still south, and was not allegedly visible from mainland Greece and Rome, but it could be observed from Egypt.

Canopus was used for sea navigation in southern latitudes. Since there is no star at the site of the South Heavenly Pole, a similar polar star in the northern hemisphere, several methods on the bright stars of the southern sky were used to determine directions on the parties of light. One of these methods uses the stars Canopus and Ahernar (Canopus, Ahernar and the South Pole of the world constitute the tops of the equilateral triangle). The star was even used since the 1960s as a reference point in astronautics to determine the orientation of the spacecraft using star sensors.

7. Alpha Centauri

RA: 14H 39M 35S, DEC: -60 ° 50'15 ", MAG -0.27 m

Alpha, Beta and Proxima Centauri
Alpha and beta Centaurus. A red circle is marked with a proxy centaution - the star closest to the sun.
Southern Sky Map.
The sky is near the southern pole of the world.

Alpha Centauri - Third in the brightness of the star of the night sky in the Southern Constellation of the Centaur. It is also the closest starry system at a distance of 4.3 light years. Another star name - Rigel Kentaurus And this is "not the" Rigel (one more star with the name of the Bolt, also in the top ten of the brightest stars, is located in Orion and is visible, unlike Alpha Centaur, from everywhere in the northern hemisphere).

Star is a triple star system. The two components are the stars with the designation of the α Centaurus A and B - the stars located close close to each other, similar to the sun and visually indistinguishable as two objects. Third Component - Red Dwarf Proxima Centaurus , it is removed from them for a substantial distance over the heavenly sphere and is not visible to the naked eye (in the photo this star is marked with a red circle). Near the stars proxima Centaurus recently confirmed the existence of Earth-type exoplanets in the "zone of potential inhabitants" - see article.

Next to Alpha Centauro on the heavenly sphere is also one of the bright stars of the sky - Beta Centaurus , or Gadar , with visible star magnitude +0.6 m. This is also a triple star system, very noticeable in the sky, but it is formally not among the top ten, occupying the next place in brightness after Bethelgeuse and is much further - at a distance of 390 light years.

eight. Arctur.

RA: 14H 15M 40S, DEC: + 19 ° 10'56 ", MAG -0.05 m

Arcturus.
Arctic (left). Roger Ressmeyer / Corbis / VCG.

Spring Triangle Map.

Arctur. - Red giant in the northern constellation of Volopasa ( Boötes. ) At a distance of 34 light years. In brightness, this is the fourth star in the sky, and the first among the stars of the Northern Hemisphere. His mass is one and a half times more than the sun, but the temperature is less, as it happens in the stars entering the phase of the red giants. Therefore, a significant proportion of emitted energy falls on infrared, that is, a "thermal" part of the spectrum. According to the absolute value of the brightness of the sun, 100 times in the visible range, but 200 times throughout the spectrum due to the transcendent in the infrared part. In such a state of the red giant, the sun will be in several billion years after the burnout of its hydrogen reserves in thermonuclear reactions.

Arcturus makes up the top of another "triangular" asterism - Spring triangle which also includes stars Spika (α virgin) and Denhead (β lion). The spice is in the twenty of the bright stars, but the debole in brightness is somewhere in the 60th place. In another embodiment, instead of the denbol, as a vertex point to the star Regulla (α lion): It is brighter, but the "triangle" from the equilateral is obtained more elongated and more difficult to localizable. Usually these stars are found according to the characteristic lines of the Big Bear Bucket, as can be seen in the diagram.

nine. Capella

RA: 05H 16M 41S, DEC: + 45 ° 59'53 ", MAG +0.08 m

Capella
Capella (centered above) and the constellation of the ease.

Capella Alpha Aurigae Map

Capella - Yellow giant in the constellation of the erection ( Auriga. ), similar to the sun, but significantly more. It is at a distance of 41 luminous year and refers to the spectral class G5. The class G includes the sun, but according to the star classification, it passes as "yellow dwarf" (G2V subclass). In the list of bright stars, the chapel takes the sixth place.

This is a four-star star system consisting of two double stars with the designations of AA, AA, AA, H and L. Couple AA, AB - two yellow giants with the masses of 2.5 masses of the Sun, rotating very close to each other, and a pair H, L - Red dwarfs with a lot of approximately half of the solar (spectral class M) on the distance from them. Because of the yellow-red color and significant brightness, it is claimed that the star can be confused in the sky with Mars, but it is in a completely different area of ​​the sky, strongly north of the plane of the sun and planets (ecliptic) and almost at the level of a large marsh, where Mars is obviously will not come.

10. Vega

RA: 18H 36M 56S, DEC: + 38 ° 47'01 ", MAG +0.03 m

Summer Triangle; Vega, Deneb and Altair
Summer triangle: Vega (on top of the left), Denief (near the left edge) and Altair (below the center).

Summer Triangle Map.

Today we know the stars, the star magnitude of which is brighter than 1m. For instance, - Star class A0V (white-bluish star of the main sequence, two times more massive and 40 times brighter than the sun) at a distance of 25 light years in the northern constellation Lyra. This is the second brightness of the star in the northern hemisphere after Arcticu and the fifth on the night of the night sky. Due to the precession of the earth axis, about 15 thousand years ago, Vega was a "polar star", that is, the axis of rotation of the Earth was directed to her, and not on the α small bear, as in our era; Accordingly, after 12 thousand years, the Pole of the World will move back to it.

The obvious historical interest in Vegé made it in the new time "one of the most studied stars." She was first after the sun photographed (in 1850) a star, one of the first to which the distance on the Pararallax method was determined (displacement of the celestial field at the annual movement of the Earth) and one of the first stars for which the spectrum was obtained in the 1870s Radiation. Vega used to be used as a reference to determine visible stars. For starry, a logarithmic scale is applied in brightness: a decrease in the brightness of a hundred times corresponds to an increase in the star magnitude by 5 units, for example, with -1 mUp to 4. m. At the same time, the brightness of the vegue was taken for zero-item, that is, its visible star values ​​relied equal to 0 m.

Vega, Denb (α swan) and Altair (α eagle) make up Summer triangle (Summer-autumn triangle). Like a winter triangle, he lies right on the arc of the Milky Way, but in these surroundings the Milky Way looks painfully. This is due to the fact that on this side of the sky, the direction in the plane of the Milky Way indicates about the center of the galaxy in the Southern Constellation of Sagittarius with a dense galactic core and many stars, and on the opposite side of the sky, where Orion is in the opposite side of the center populated areas. For the same reason, the Milky Way is better to take pictures and explore from the southern hemisphere, for example, from the Southern European Observatory in Chile or Observatory at Station Scott-Amundsen on the South Pole.

On this review map of the heavenly sphere, you can see all the ten brightest stars described here, scattered throughout 88 constellations.

Star map
Card starry sky and the brightest stars.
Other article lists from the astronomical series

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