Independent installation of warm floor under the tile - installation features, recommendations of specialists

For a number of rooms, traditional flooring is a tile - a kitchen, bathrooms, a bath. The tile on the floor is practical and convenient. The only disadvantage can be considered a cold surface, even when there is no source of cold under it. Long-term contact of the bare feet with tiles causes temperature discomfort.

However, for this reason, no one refuses the tile - there are much more advantages of it in front of other floor coatings. In addition, the question is quite easily solved - the organization of a warm floor. The tile is placed on the heating system. Many masters began to be interested in the technology of laying in-board coverage.

The heating system under the tile can be based on the circulation of the liquid in the floors mounted in the floor, thermomats or heating cables, infrared canvas. The first option is quite time consuming and requires the intervention of professionals. However, it is able to fully heat the entire room, and not just the surface of the tile.

Heating cable is cheaper, but the installation is as difficult, and the screed will be thick. Heating mat is an improved conductor. It is easy to calculate and lay it. Infrared canvas is not intended for "wet" works, although manufacturers are assigned in the opposite. What is the way to choose, solve you. Consider each of them in more detail.

Cafel heating systems

Several sources of thermal energy are used to organize the heating of flooring and the premises: circulating on intrapol pipes The coolant heating electrical conductors, infrared radiation.

Warm floor systems are respectively divided:

  • water;
  • electrical;
  • infrared.

Each of them is able to provide a comfortable temperature on the surface of the tile and in the residential room. Three ways have one end result. Differences only in technology and design. Consider each separately.

Water heated

The contour on which water under a certain temperature will circulate from special pipes inside the floor. The coolant comes from the boiler through the collector, whose task is to distribute the design of the structure throughout the house.

Independent installation of warm floor under the tile - installation features, recommendations of specialists

The system is equipped in residential premises. It is used to heal the tile and the remaining flooring. To ensure proper work, it is better to apply to professionals, as the calculations and installation is quite complicated. The process is quite laborious and durable. Independent work can delay, and the positive result is not guaranteed.

Electric heated tile

Warm floors on electricity are not used as the main heating. The main task of such systems is heated outdoor coating.

Independent installation of warm floor under the tile - installation features, recommendations of specialists

The main advantages of the electric floor:

  • adjustable room heating at any time;
  • The exception of leakage;
  • There is no chance of freezing water in pipes in the absence of electricity;
  • minimum thickness;
  • Prostate in maintenance.

There are several types of electrical heating elements:

  • Cable. For heating, a hydraulic cable is used in the coil. Fastening occurs on special planks, sold with complete sets for mounting. The cost will determine the power and length of the cable. Savings occurs on the independent selection of elements and installation. The cable is single and twilight. The first option is budget, the second is reliable.
  • Heating mats. The perfect option for self-installation. Cost is 30% higher, but calculations and styling are quite simple.
  • Infrared. The most expensive, but also the most reliable option. There are no electromagnetic waves.

Under the tile, the cable warm floor is suitable. It is easy to mount independently, has a high degree of safety and is convenient to use. Sensitive thermostats maintain the temperature of floor ceramics in a specific range.

Infrared film floor

This type of warm floors is designed for "dry" mounting: laminate, linoleum, carpet, PVC tile. Many manufacturers argue that the film can be laid in the screed and tile glue. However, experts recommend to refrain from this for the following reasons:

  • Low adhesion film. If you put a tile or pour the screed, the system will be floating. When tapping there is an empty sound, and with mechanical exposure - cracks. Sometimes there are serifs and cuts to increase adhesion. This greatly complicates the work, since everything requires careful isolation. Otherwise, you will have to remove the tile when the RCD is triggered.
Independent installation of warm floor under the tile - installation features, recommendations of specialists
  • Film composition. Solutions and adhesives contain alkali, which leads to corrosive PET surface with any thickness and number of layers. Called electrical connections will begin to spoke, causing a short circuit.
  • Previous methods of warm floors are specially designed for the "wet" installation. It is not necessary to invent a new one and check it on yourself.

Water Paul Installation Technology

Start construction work should be calculated:

  • The total area of ​​heated premises. It is required to determine the amount of waterproofing, insulation, reinforcing grid and other consumables.
  • The need for thermal energy. According to the data obtained, the number of contours, the total length of the pipes, the type of collector, the circulation pump is calculated.
  • The amount of floor covering.
Independent installation of warm floor under the tile - installation features, recommendations of specialists

After all the preparations perform the main work in the following sequence:

  • Laying of waterproofing canvas. It fell on the floors on the floor slabs, and in a private house - on a rough screed.
  • Heat insulation. To do this, you can use special mats or penplex with foam. Special mats not only insulate the floor, but also make it easier to install pipes.
  • The second layer of waterproofing (for foam it is not required).
  • Installation of the reinforcing large-scale grid, to which the elements of the heating circuit will be attached.
  • Laying pipes. Be sure to comply with a certain step to provide the required heat transfer. Thermal power increases with a decrease in the distance between the turns. The contour must be shrinking with the graduation and intake nozzles of the collector.
  • Installation of guide lighthouses. On the perimeter of the room laid the damper tape, the tie is poured concrete.
  • Laying the tile. Do this is allowed only after drying concrete.

In addition to the standard components, the warm floor is equipped with a thermostat system: a temperature sensor, a thermostat, a servo on the collector. The thermostat devices allow you to control the feed of the coolant and set any temperature mode.

The tile is placed only on high-quality glue proven manufacturer. Otherwise, the tile will go back.

Equipment of electrical heating tile

Consider the installation process of the warm floor under the tile with the use of heating cable and a special mat. Preparatory work will be the same, differences in the main process.

Independent installation of warm floor under the tile - installation features, recommendations of specialists

Surface preparation

Remove the old coating, clean the floor from the garbage. If there are no defects, the black screed is not required. In the presence of irregularities, the draft screed is poured. It should be as smooth as possible and run by lighthouses. The finishing screed will be very thin, which does not allow to use lighthouses.


Like any electrical device, the warm floor should be based on the connection scheme. It indicates the distance between adjacent wires or heating mats.

The following recommendations exist:

  • retreat of the wall more than 10 cm;
  • At the locations of household appliances and furniture without legs, strictly prohibited material is strictly prohibited - heat transfer is disturbed, the heat returns to the conductor and overheating;
  • The cable should not be strictly straightforwardly laid, the grid is easy to cut and send the track to the right place.

Calculation of material

If the warm floor is the main heating, then 1 sq. M. It is necessary to 140-180 W power. Auxiliary systems are enough 140 W / sq.m. Of course, you can use 80 W with good insulation of the room.

Calculate the area of ​​the room without plots with household appliances and furniture without legs. This is a useful heating area. According to the results obtained, the total length and power of the heating elements are found. Running power 1 m cable 16-21 W / m.

For example, the room is 12 sq.m. And the required power of the heater is 100 W / sq.m, then the total power must be 1.2 kW. The cable is taken 20 W / m, and the required length is 60 m.

The thermomat is calculated in the same way - taking into account the power and useful area.

Do not forget about the mounting tape for fastening the heating element to the concrete tie.

Wiring check

As can be seen, a powerful electric floor is required for the mid-size room, which will power the electrical wiring in the entire room. Determine the current cable cross-section and analyze the compliance of the wiring for the new system. If the diameter lived does not match, the electrical wiring is replaced. The new load should correspond to the RCD with the circuit breaker.

Heat insulation

We start mounting. First of all, hydro and thermal insulation should be ensured. This will determine preservation, efficiency and efficiency. Waterproofing is laid on the black screed. For thermal insulation, it is recommended to use a foil coating foam.

The foam is laid down, and the seams are squeezed with foil scotch. Also, the heat insulator should be a little on the walls for the efficiency of heat conservation. To reduce the height of the room, a polypropylene or polystyrene foam can be used.

Upon completion of the work, it is recommended to sample all around the perimeter by damping tape to compensate for the resizing when heated.

The metal grid is also placed, which will create an air layer between the insulation and the heating element. The grid will simplify the installation of a warm floor.

Sometimes the insulation layer is poured a preliminary screed. This increases the fire safety system.

Temperature sensors

To control and control the temperature on the tile surface, the thermostat with the sensor is used. It can be electronic and mechanical. The thermostat turns on and off the system, as well as sets the mode of operation. It is installed near the outlet.

The temperature sensor must be mounted in the floor. Create a vertical stroke in the wall from the thermostat to the floor. The sensor in the corrugation goes to the place of temperature control - the middle between the two cable turns. Corrugation is required to protect against damage and provide access in any time. The end that in the screed is poured with sealant.

Control check

Before laying the cable, resistance is measured. The value must correspond to passport data with a maximum deviation by 10%. Make it with a multimeter, which also indicates the phase.

Installation is carried out only in accordance with the resistance of the nominal.

Cable mount

After surface preparation, you can mount the cable. To do this, you can use the mounting tape, plastic clamps (when using a metal grid). The distance between the turns make the same to ensure the uniformity of heating.

With heating mats, it is easier to work with heating mats - the distance is already accurate. The material simply dismissed the scheme developed earlier.

After laying and consolidation, they check the resistance to the multimeter. The value must coincide with the previous one.

Pouring tie.

For concrete mortar take:

  • 4 pieces of sand;
  • 5 pieces of rubble;
  • 1 part of cement;
  • 0.6 pieces of pure water;
  • Plasticizer - 1% of the total mass.
Water uses a little to eliminate the appearance of cracks in the screed. It is strictly forbidden to add clamzit and perlite in the solution - the heat exchange and overheating of the conductors occurs.

The total thickness of the screed 3-5 cm. Increase this value is not recommended.

The screed will freeze for 3-5 days, but complete drying will be only in 28 days. Include floors during this period.

You can not do the screed when using thermomatons. They are allowed to lay tile on glue.

There should be no "air pockets" in the screed, which cause overheating cable.

Laying tiles

After 2-3 after filling, the tie can be laid a tile. If there is no experience, it is better to invite a specialist. The floor surface must be perfectly smooth. For laying use special glue. The installation of the warm floor is completed.

Installation of infrared warm floor under the tile

For work requires a standard set:

  • Thermal film in the roll;
  • Wiring set;
  • Contact clamps;
  • Bituminous isolation.

Additionally acquire:

  • heat transfer insulation;
  • thermostat with mounting box;
  • heat-resistant polyethylene film;
  • thermal sensor;
  • double sided tape;
  • Additional wires.


In order for thermal energy to go up under heating elements, the heat transfer insulation (metallized lavsan or polypropylene film) is placed. It is impossible to use aluminum foil - over time it is exarmed.

Preparatory work:

  • prepare a place to install the thermostat;
  • Determine the places of laying a film floor;
  • Preparation of pure and even foundation;
  • Laying heat transfer material.

Installation of thermal blinds

  • Rolled the thermal film and the necessary bands cut off on special lines. Copper contacts are stacked down. To reduce the number of contacts, the maximum long segments are cut. Contacts must go to the thermostat to reduce the consumption of conductors.
Independent installation of warm floor under the tile - installation features, recommendations of specialists
  • Fix the copper strip using the clip: one side inside the thermal blind, and the other is over the copper strip. Fixed by priests.
  • The cut line is covered with bitumen insulation. If the cut is not over the lines, isolate the stride.
  • The thermal film is fixed with a shift.


  • Installing the thermostat.
  • Conduct wires to thermostat from heating elements. They should be on one side under the plinth or in the plastic box.
  • In the heat transfer insulation, you can cut the groove under the wires.
  • To connect the wire to the climax on mats, the tip of the insulation is cut. It is inserted into the contact clamp and fixed by the passage.
  • Place connection Isolate square piece of bitumen tape.
  • Connect the second ends to the thermostat. The scheme must be given in the instruction and depends on the model.
  • Install the temperature remote sensor, connect it to the thermostat. The head is installed to the black silicon strip from below using bitumen insulation.
  • Connect the thermostat to the network. In the absence of experience, they use the services of a professional. If the daily consumption is more than 2 kW, use a separate machine.
  • Check each strip for performance at 30 degrees and higher.
  • Place waterproofing from PET film to protect.

Laying tiles

On the film, the tile is laid in two ways:

  • The PET film fasten the painting grid to increase the clutch. Poured self-dependent mixture or tie up to 1 cm thick.
  • Waterproofing is trimmed with GVL. The mount occurs on the screws between the stripes. Work requires caution!

Next, the tiles are placed on simple technology. The glue must be special for warm floors.

Most people choose electric warm floor. It is easily compatible with most outdoor coatings: natural stone, ceramic tile, porcelain stoneware, etc. Its installation can be made independently. The use of thermomats will significantly simplify the installation and will exclude some stages from it.


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a source -

Electric warm floor - universal heating agent. It allows you to evenly distribute heat over the floor surface and provide a comfortable room in the room.

Warm floor systems are compatible with almost all floor coverings, including laminate, parquet, carpet and even decorative stone.

In this article, it will be discussed about the stages of the arrangement of the electrobol under the tile - from the selection of the cable and the calculation of the power to the final laying of the tile.

Selection of heating element

The basis of the warm floor system is the heating elements presented in the form of mats, cable or infrared film.

Work on the formation of the floor must be started with the choice of cable, which will provide the highest quality heating.

Heating cable

For the organization of underfloor, cables of two types will be suitable:

Resistive cable

Eliminate the same amount of heat over its entire length, but when overheated, the risks of the brave. The most fiscal option is a single-wire resistive cable. Two-wire stands just more expensive, but easier in laying;

Can adjust the amount of heat released depending on the temperature of its own heating. The price of such a cable is higher than resistive, but it works more reliable.

Both varieties of thermocabels are laid in two ways - snake and snail.

Important! Due to the risk of overheating, the resistive cable is placed in such a way that it goes into a large household appliances highlighting heat.

Cable mats

Mates are the same heating cables, but already laid in a certain way on the reinforced plastic grid. Installation of mats is as simplified as much as possible - they are unfolded according to the developed scheme directly on the floor base, and the tiles are made from above using glue.

Cable mats tile

The direction of laying of fundamental importance does not have. The mats are allowed to roll both along the short and along the long wall.

The lack of cable mats lies in their inertness - the floor quickly warms up, but also quickly cools. Therefore, the thermomats are more suitable as auxiliary, and not the main source of heat.

Carbon mats

The carbon system is based on the use of an infrared emitter with a heating element in the form of graphite-silver rods. With each other, they are joined by a cable of increased security with a core from a stranded copper wire.

From above, carbon rods are covered with polyester or polyethylene shell, and carbon pasta is located inside.

When powered by mat from the power supply, the paste is heated and begins to emit heat.

Carbon mats under the tile

Outward mats from the carbon look just like from the cable, but with fewer jumpers. The technology of their laying is not different. The advantage of the system is that the cables are connected to the conductor on a parallel diagram, therefore, when the rest is due to the failure of one element continue to function.

But practice shows that infrared emitters quickly burn out in the butt places, so many builders prefer a carbon system for heating the floor not to use.

Infrared film

Another embodiment of infrared heating is a carbon film, the principle of operation of which is similar to carbon matamas. Due to the minimum thickness, the system saves space, providing high-quality heating.

Infrared film can be laid in a dry way at any stage of repair work and include immediately after installation. But this type of heating element has a number of shortcomings. It separates the laid tile from the adhesive base, which is fraught with the deformation of the facing.

In addition, in situations, when cement mortar is used to masonry the tile, the film is extended and comes in disrepair.

Tip! Film floor is more suitable for laying under linoleum, parquet or laminate. If it is still necessary to put the film under the tile, it is better to choose a perforated material.

Counting the number and power of mats

Counting the number and power of mats

First you need to determine the power of mats, and then calculate their number. Since the tile laid predominantly in the bathroom and in the kitchen, it is worth taking the indicators for these premises for the landmark:

  • The average power for the kitchen is 110-130 W / m2;
  • The average power for the bath, shower and toilet is 120-150 W / m2.

These indicators are relevant only if the warm floor is mounted as an auxiliary heating system. If the electroopol is designed to thoroughly damn the kitchen or bathroom, the power of one mat should be no less than 140-180 W / m2.

Next, we calculate the useful area of ​​the room - the length of the room is multiplied by the width and subtract the area that household appliances will occupy.

Now you can calculate the number of mats - divide the useful area to the area of ​​one element of the selected power.

Calculation of the length of heating cable

Calculation of the length of heating cable

The length of the electrocabolic will depend on the total power of the system. Calculate it with multiplication of medium power (W / m2) to the total area of ​​the room, it is also recommended to add a stock of 30% on heat loss. Here you can focus on the optimal indicators for the kitchen and the bathroom described above.

Then we are determined with the variety and rated power of the cable, it can vary from 10 to 60 W / m. Further, the total power of the system is divided into the power of the cable power meter - we get the length.

Thus, it is obvious that the more powerful the heating cable will be selected, the less it will be needed for the installation of the electrobol.

Basic installation rules for heated floors

Installation of a warm floor using different heating elements - mats and cable - will have significant differences.

Cable floor mounting principles

Cable floor mounting principles

General work order:

  1. Preparation of the foundation, arrangement of the heat insulating layer, elimination of cracks, irregularities, cleaning from dirt, priming.
  2. Installing the thermostat with two strokes - under the power supply and under the connection of the cable.
  3. Laying of cable mats and cable by selected scheme, wire output to the thermostat.
  4. Installation of the temperature sensor.
  5. Execution of a screed or applying of adhesive composition with grooves.
  6. Flooring floor with a cafeter.

Important! When setting the floor by mats for fixing the tiles, it is necessary to purchase special tile adhesive under heating elements. Heating cable can be laid under cement screed.

Infrared Floor Installation Principles

General scheme of work:

  1. Cutting the infrared canvas on the strip according to the layout plan.
  2. Isolating edges of heating elements.
  3. Putting the substrate from foamed propylene and foil that prevents infrared heat lines.
  4. The placement of the sliced ​​infrared film on the plane, fixing the stationery tape.
  5. Fixing clips on the copper strip connecting with the cable.
  6. Laying the polyethylene film to protect against tile glue.
  7. Installation of thermostat and sensor.

After applying a thin layer of tile glue, the laying of the tile is possible only after drying it.

Total turning technology laying

Warm floor tile

To equip the floor with heating under the ceramoplete, it is necessary to competently perform installation work in 10 stages.

Surface preparation

The playground under the laying of mats or cable should be smooth and clean. With pronounced irregularities, cracks and protrusions it is best to perform a cement screed that will hide all flaws. If the flaws are insignificant, sufficiently sharpen the cracks and polish the protruding sites.

Then the floor is cleaned of garbage, carefully sweep and treated with primer.

At the next stage, it is projected only when the primer will dry completely.

Creating a scheme

Regardless of the type of electro, the thermostat is needed. You can save it from the already installed outlet or directly from the network. As a rule, the diagram of connecting the thermostat is indicated in the instructions. There are also two channels in the wall: one under the thermal sensor corrugation, the second - under the power wire of the heating cable.

Important! To lay the cable and mats in such a way that a distance of about 10 cm remains to the walls.

Types of laying of a warm floor

The easiest way to lay cable is a snake. The mats fit either straight or arbitrarily in those areas where more intense heating is needed. When laying a cable, both of its end are displayed to the thermostat, and the coupling is subsequently hidden under the tie.

Thermal sensor is then mounted into a special plastic tube and all wires that feed the heating system are connected.

Calculation of materials

The number of heating mats and cable rowing meters is calculated according to the scheme above. In addition, you will need:

  • thermal insulation materials;
  • damper tape;
  • connecting wires;
  • Tile glue;
  • tile;
  • fasteners;
  • thermostat and thermal sensor;
  • Ground copper cable;
  • RCD protection system.

The amount of tiles and thermal insulation is calculated along the floor area with cutting under trimming. The amount of tile glue will depend on the curvature of the floor.

But you can navigate to the manufacturer's instructions from the calculation per square meter.

Checking old wiring

Checking old wiring

The larger the area of ​​the room intended for floor heating, the more powerful there should be a wiring. Therefore, it is pre-calculated the cable cross-section for power, current and length, so that there lived not heated and did not smelted the insulation.

The calculation takes the rated power of the cable and the electrical appliances that it must feed.

If the diameter lived too small, the wiring will have to be replaced and adjust it to a new system.

Also, you should not forget that the protective shutdown device and the machine switch must match the new electric load.

Surface thermal insulation

The quality of flooring with heating will largely depend on the qualitative insulation of the base. Competently laid base will not only reduce heat loss, but also increase the efficiency of the electrical system.

With the tasks of thermal insulation, the foam refer to the best. This is a modern multilayer material with polyethylene base and self-adhesive base. The outer part of the foam is made of foil, which does not give heat from under the floor.

The foofol is glued to the floor of the joint in the junction with a wall at 3-5 cm. The joints are stuck with a foil ribbon, and the damping tape is stacked around the perimeter, preventing direct contact with heating elements.

Tip! For premises with low ceilings instead of foam, it is recommended to use polystyrene foam or polypropylene.

Installation of temperature sensor and thermostat

Installation of temperature sensor and thermostat

The thermostat is designed to enable / disable the system, as well as adjusting the heating temperature. It is mounted on the wall near the rosette.

The temperature sensor is designed for independent operation of the heating system and its optimization without monitoring the owners. The sensor is mounted directly to the floor in the corrugated pipe laid in the stroke.

It must be installed in the center between the two cable turns. The inner end of the corrugation is insulated with a sealant, the outer connects to the thermostat.

Control test

Checking the cable or mats is carried out before laying on the surface - for this, their resistance is measured by a multimeter. From the specified passport parameters, the resistance should not differ more than 10%.

If the indicators within the normal range can be started.

Fastening the heating element

Fastening the heating element of the warm floor

The easiest to lay thermomatas - they are spread along the plane of the floor in the selected position and connect to the thermostat.

The cable is styled by snail or snake and fixed by mounting ribbon. In order for the work to argue easier, plastic clamps can be used to fix the electrobol. It is very important to observe the same distance between the cable turns, otherwise the site will warm up unevenly.

After the layout of the material, it is necessary to check again - it must match the data of the first measurement.

Pouring tie.

The screed serves as the basis for the facing and contributes to the best heat distribution on the floor. Traditionally, a cement-sand screed from three parts of sand and one piece of cement is used for the fill. It is added to them to obtain a viscous consistency and PVA glue to increase the viscosity of the solution.

For saving cement, crushed stone is added to the solution - 5 parts per 1 part of cement. The recommended fill thickness is about 3-5 cm.

Important! You can not add a large amount of water into the solution, otherwise cracks will appear in the screed.

If mats are selected as the heating element, the screed is not required - you can immediately lay the tile on the film.

Laying tiles

Laying tiles on a warm floor

Flooring of the floor with a cement screed can be carried out only when the solution is grabbing. Full drying can stretch for a month, but it is possible to start the surface after 2-3 days after filling the screed. The cerarmoplitka flooring is placed on the same principle as for any other base.

It is better to plant it on glue that does not "steal" extra centimeters of height. The glue must be with a special label "Warm floor" or indicating the range of permissible temperatures. On the MAT glue composition should be applied very neatly soft spatula so as not to damage the system.

When using the solution, you need to ensure that there are no voids in the layer that can provoke the overheating of the cable.

After a day along the warm floor, you can move. And fully run the system and rub the seams are recommended when the glue, the solution and cement base are completely dried.

Overview of methods

Selection of heating element

Heating cable

Heating self-regulating cable

Cable Laying Cable

Cable mats

carbon mats

Infrared film

Infrared tile film

Counting the number and power of floor mats

Basic installation rules for heated floors

Infrared Floor Installation Principles

Dolzhna-BYT-ROVNOJ-I-Chistoj.jpeg »> Playground under the laying of mats or cable should be smooth and clean

Warm floor laying scheme

Calculation of warm floor materials

Protective shutdown device and automatic switch

Thermal insulation of the surface before mounting the warm floor


Filling tie Warm floor

Finish Warm floor

Video Overview

It is difficult to imagine the finish of a modern home or apartment without the use of ceramic tiles. Its unique qualities - durability, high hygienicity, waterproofability, ease of cleaning, excellent decorativeness and others, make such material extremely popular, especially indoors with elevated moisture levels or high-abrasive loads on the coating. For floors in the kitchens, bathrooms, bathrooms, in bathrooms, perhaps, nothing better and do not come up with.

How to make electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself
How to make electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself

But there is one significant disadvantage - the ceramic floor refers to the category of "cold", and with the onset of winter to walk on it with bare feet or in light home shoes it becomes very not comfortable. And it is very cool that a similar disadvantage in our time is easy to eliminate the installation of the floor surface heating system. This technological operation is quite complex, but still seen quite feasible for any good owner of the house or apartment. So, how to make an electric warm floor under the tile with their own hands - we will consider with all the details in this publication.

Why is electric?

Modern technologies offer the owners of houses or apartments. Two basic approaches are to create a water heating system of the floor surface tied with the main heating system, and the organization of electric "warm floor" of several types. In both cases, the "warm floor" under the tile can be considered either as the main source of thermal energy in this room, or only as an effective means of improving comfort.

At first glance, the optimal solution becomes water heating - as more economical in terms of energy consumption. Perhaps this opinion is also fueled by "hopes" that the pipeline contours are enough to connect to the risers of the central or autonomous heating system - and everything will work. Alas, not everything is so simple - very large-scale work is coming, which can also be more complicated by administrative problems to obtain permission to create a similar heating system.

2016-06-10_111225.Warm water floors from heating - a very problem task!

Use central heating as a source of energy to create a water "warm floor" - complicated, and sometimes even completely impossible task. What problems will be faced with wanting Make a warm floor from heating And what are the possible ways to solve them - read in a special publication of our portal.

In many positions, electric "warm floors" look much more attractive than water:

  • Water contours, even the highest quality and flawless assembly, is still a certain risk of the appearance of the leakage of the coolant. In electric floors, it is clear that it is not even considered.
  • Most technology of laying water "warm floor" requires a massive concrete screed - this is a rather time-consuming operation that requires a lot of time and effort. In addition, such a screed becomes very significant additional load on overlap. Some electric floors also require screed, but its thickness will be significantly less. And besides, many heating electrical systems allow them to do without pouring a screed.
  • Installation of pipe contours - is incomparable, more complicated than the layout of heating cables or mats.
  • Electric heating of floors does not require complex and bulky collector-mixing equipment. Everything is limited to a compact control unit, which, by the way, opens up opportunities for much more accurate adjustment of operation modes.
Even in their dimensions of the "Management Group" by water and electric "warm floors" - are absolutely not comparable. Not to mention the simplicity of their installation and operation ...
Even in their dimensions of the "Management Group" by water and electric "warm floors" - are absolutely not comparable. Not to mention the simplicity of their installation and operation ...
  • What is particularly important for residents of apartments - the creation of an electric "warm floor" is a fully implemented initiative of any owner, without the need to pass tedious procedures for coordination and obtain permission. The only condition is to stay within the boundaries of the highlighted limit of the power of consumption (at home or apartment it is up to 15 kW) - but it is difficult to go out for these frameworks even theoretically.

Electricity, however, is the most expensive, but with a reasonable approach, high-quality thermal insulation and a competently adjusted floor heating system, it is quite possible to achieve high savings.

The difference in temperature distribution indoors when using a "warm floor" and conventional radiator heating
The difference in temperature distribution indoors when using a "warm floor" and conventional radiator heating

The resulting floor heated floor will contribute to the most optimal distribution of heat in the room - with a maximum temperature at the bottom and gradually decrease as the distance from the floor increases. In addition, the ceramic tile, receiving a "thermal charge," has a property of accumulating it and gradually transmit air, which also contributes to the smooth, most economical operation of the system, minimizing its inclusions.

Electric warm floor

What is primarily necessary to envisage and execute before installing the electric "warm floor"?

There are several types of electrical floor heating systems. Each of the varieties, of course, implies its own features of the installation technology. However, there are a number of uniform requirements related to both preparatory operations and the selection of the necessary tool and equipment set.

  • Floors must have the necessary degree of thermal insulation. It will be completely unreasonable to waste expensive electricity to warm cold overlaps, especially if the ground or unheated room is located below. The "warm floor" should be laid on insulated base. The only exception may be the case when the heated room is located below, and the larger heat leaks are not foreseen. All the same, it is usually recommended to use thin thermal insulation material with a reflective foil coating in such a situation.
  • One should never put any "warm floor" to the surface that does not differ in integrity and evenness, especially since it is assumed to be flooring on top of the ceramic tile, requiring a stable base. If the old surface has significant height, irregularity, cracks, cracks in the corners, if loose, unstable areas and other defects are noted, then it should be started with the repair of the base, usually expressed in the fill of a solid leveling screed. At the same time, if necessary, thermal insulation works can be carried out.

2016-06-10_130752.The floor surface for the installation of the heating system should be smooth!

Universal way of aligning floors is Pouring concrete tie. - You can read about the intricacies of this process in a special article of our portal. And the other publication will help to figure out how to independently perform Warmed tie with clay .

  • To connect electrical heating elements stacked in the "warm floor", the dedicated power line is predetermined, which is best to "tie" to its own machine and recycle the protection instrument - UzO. In advance, the location of the "warm floor" is determined, that is, the point of placement of the thermostat - is exactly here and there must be a power line. Often, for premises with high humidity, the installation of a thermostatic control unit is provided in the next room (corridor), so that there is free convenient access to it.
  • As practice shows, most often acquired the thermostatic control unit with a thermal sensor will have to be independently - only in rare cases, it immediately enters the "warm floor" kit. Nothing terrible - almost all similar blocks have unified dimensions and are designed for installation in standard converter. But it appears the possibility of choosing the device at its discretion - from the easiest, inexpensive, electromechanical adjustment, to more modern, with digital display, push-button or sensory control and the possibility of programming modes of operation.
Despite the difference in the complexity of its device, almost all thermostatic control blocks are designed to be installed in the standard socket socket
Despite the difference in the complexity of its device, almost all thermostatic control blocks are designed to be installed in the standard socket socket

The length of the thermal sensor signal cable must be sufficient for the planned location for installing the control unit, especially if it is planned to install it in the adjacent room.

  • Since electrical installation works are assumed, you should prepare the appropriate tool. It will be necessary to cut the wires, clean the insulation at the ends, and the stripped fate - or to be pressed into copper tips, or it is highly listed with a soldering iron. For isolation, it will be necessary for the isolent, and better - heat shrink tubes. It is not necessary to hope that the segments of the "heat shrinkage" are often included in the delivery of the "warm floor" - it is more reasonable to provide your own stock. If there is a construction hairdryer, it will greatly facilitate the operation of heating the electrocippi areas closed by the "heat shrink".

And during the installation, and especially on its completion, before starting, it is necessary to control the correctness and reliability of switching, the compliance of the parameters of the electrical circuit in passport indicators. In this case, it is difficult to do without a tester - a multimeter. It is better to buy it immediately - it is not so expensive, and in the household it is often used to him.

To control the switching electrical circuit, you will need a multimeter
To control the switching electrical circuit, you will need a multimeter
  • Finally, the installation of electric heating floor will be accompanied by general buildings. For the proceest of stages under the laying of wires or the thermal sensor, there will be a grinding of "Bulgarian" with a circle of stone, or a perforator. Some types of warm floors require pouring screed - for this, a special tool is also required. Since our ultimate goal is to put a ceramic tile on the floor, you can not do without an "arsenal" and for this operation: gear spatulas, mixer for kneading glue, rollers and brushes for pre-priming surface, level for controlling the correctness of laying, etc.

To fully understand what tool will be required in a specific case, it will be possible after familiarization with the description of the installation work with various types of electric "warm floor".

Conducting electric heating floor under the tile

"Warm floor" with heating cable

Main types of heating cables

This kind of electric "warm floor" implies the use of heating cable. It is laid out on the surface in a certain order, and then closes on top of the screed, which subsequently becomes the base for laying ceramic tiles.

There are three main types of heating cables for such purposes:

  • Single cables. As it is already clear from the name, only one wire is hidden under insulation, which will simultaneously perform the function and conductor, and the heating element. For this, a high resistance conductor is used, which has the ability to rapid resistive heating. In essence, this is the same long "spiral" in the insulation, which is used in other heating devices.

In such cables attracts only a low price. But the installation of them can cause certain difficulties. To closer the circuit, the cable circuit will have to be laid in such a way that both ends of the bay come out at one point - in the installation site of the control unit. It seems to be not scary, but in practice it happens when the close size of the room or its special configuration makes this task extremely complex, and sometimes - even not solvable. The fact is that the rule must be respected - under no circumstances of the loop of the heating cable should not be intersected with each other.

The principal difference in the structure of a single-core, twinkle and semiconductor self-regulating cables (from top to bottom)
The principal difference in the structure of a single-core, twinkle and semiconductor self-regulating cables (from top to bottom)
  • With bike cables are already much simpler - they have two conductors. Both can play the role of the heater, or one becomes a heat source, and the second serves only for closing the chain. In any case, the end of the cable is the contact coupling, in which both conductors are switched together.

Laying this cable is not much difficult, since only one end is supplied to the connection point, and where the second one turns out, with the coupling - no longer matter.

Both the other cable - resistive action, that is, they are heated at the same time and equally along its entire length, and adjusting the heating is made exclusively on and off the power in the thermostatic control unit.

  • A more advanced is an innovative self-regulating cable, in which the metal wires perform exceptionally the role of the conductors, and the heating goes at the expense of the semiconductor matrix, located between the wires. The terminal clutch performs only an insulating role, since two wires are connected to each other. The flow of electrical current goes along the entire length of the cable through the matrix, which has a very interesting property. In a cold condition, the conductivity reaches the maximum, so fast heating occurs. But as the temperature rises, the conductivity decreases, and when a certain heating limit is reached, the semiconductor is almost completely "locked". Moreover, this phenomenon can be traced at each single cable site - this is how the process of self-regulation occurs.

This gives a very sensitive effect of energy savings - the cable will not consume more than it is necessary for heating to a certain temperature. In addition, the probability of overheating is excluded.

Such products are still quite expensive, so they did not get too widespread, but their time, for sure - ahead. In the meantime, the optimal option for a combination of affordable price and convenient laying can be called a two-core resistive version, which will come about the conversation further.

Any cables, except for their "working" part, have a conventional connecting wire that does not heat in work, and serves solely for switching. Such wires (they are usually called "cold ends") are connected to the heating part of a special coupling. The other end is free - it is it that is connected to the corresponding terminals of the thermostatic control unit.

What is the scheme to lay the cable, and how much will it take it?

Work on the creation of "warm sex" is always preceded by the preparation of the layout of the heating elements.

It has already been mentioned that the resistive cable is heated evenly throughout its entire length, and this important circumstance eliminates many difficulties. So, when laying water contours, it is necessary to use quite complex schemes - "snails", "double snakes" or "double snails", etc., which is caused by a gradual heat loss as the pipe removes from the collector, then in our case - all Much easier. The main thing is to ensure the uniform distribution of thermal energy on the heated area, that is, to choose the correct step of laying - the distance between the adjacent loops of the cable.

When drawing up a layout scheme, several important points are taken into account:

Example of the layering cable layout scheme
Example of the layering cable layout scheme
  • The place of installation of the thermostat (pos. 1) is in principle, arbitrary, but not lower than 300 mm on the level of the future floor (taking into account the filled screed and stacked ceramic tiles). Very often, it is placed on the same level with switches - it turns out a general "ensemble". In any case, the place should be such that visual control is also provided, and the speed of access to the device. It is forbidden to close the remote control unit whatever it is - furniture, carpet, curtains, etc.
  • The thermal sensor on his regular signal wire (pos. 2) must accommodate exactly the cable loop center, and from the distance from the wall of about 500 ÷ 600 mm.
  • In the diagram, after laying the cable, you should measure and note the points in which couplings will be connected (pos. 3) on the transition from the "cold end" to the heating cable, and the end (pos. 4).
  • Laying cable in areas (pos. 5), where installation of stationary furniture items (sofa, cabinet, cabinet, etc.) or household appliances (washing machine, refrigerator) are planned. The heat released heat should be constantly allocated, otherwise overheating and the output of the entire system is completely possible, and large items locally disturb the normal heat exchange floor and indoor air.

This requirement can be neglected only when laying a self-regulating cable - overheating does not suffer in principle. However, does it make sense to spend an expensive cable in places where the heating is not needed "by default"?

  • When laying a cable of the edge of its loops from either the side should defend the walls of at least 50 mm (pos. N). If a stationary heating device is installed (radiator, convector, furnace, fireplace or even just passes the heating pipe), then this distance increases at least to 100 mm.
  • The rule has already been mentioned about the categorical prohibition of the intersection of cables on the laying scheme, even with the separation of their height in the thickening screed!
  • The most convenient to lay a heating cable with fixation to special mounting strips (pos. 6). The necessary length for each particular place will also prompt the prepared scheme.
  • It is believed that for the most comfortable heating of the floor, it is necessary to "close" the heating cable about 75% of the total area of ​​the room.

The cable is acquired, as a rule, in the finished form, that is, a specific metro station, but with already installed transition and end couplings. There are technologies for self-installing such couplings, but for this we need some electrical skills and special accuracy.

Length is calculated on the basis of the need for this room in thermal energy per unit area ( PS. , W / m²) and the specific thermal power of the selected cable ( PUD ). This value is always indicated in the passport characteristics of the product (W / m).

Required amount of heat PS. You can take equal:

Features of the premises and the planned operation of the heating system "Warm floor" is considered as the main source of heating "Warm floor" is created only to improve comfort.
Floor "on the soil" or over the unheated room 180 W / m² 130 W / m²
Paul over heated room 150 W / m² 110 W / m²

Thus, the required cable length is easy to calculate according to the following ratio:

LD = S × PS / PD

Where S, Accordingly, the area on which the cable will be laid out.

ceramic tile

2016-06-10_194257.Are there any difficulties with the calculation of the area? We go to the rescue!

It happens that the sites on which the "warm floor" will be laid out, take very intricate configurations. Nothing terrible - they can be divided into several figures simpler (rectangles, trapeats, triangles), and then sum up the obtained values. Fast Calculate the area of ​​the room Even for the most difficult cases, the article of our portal will help, in which, by the way, very comfortable calculators are placed.

Calculate the required cable length will allow the calculator located below:

Calculator calculating the length of the heating cable for the "warm floor"

Go to calculations

The calculated value allows you to choose a set of finished cable in the store, or to purchase it by a metro station - if you plan to independently install the "cold ends" and insulating couplings (such an approach is not welcome).

There are situations when the calculation spent for a spacious room gives such a cable length that it becomes simply impossible to choose the kit. As an output is a breaking room for two (or more) zones, with independent heaters. True, for everyone will have to provide a separate thermostat unit.

After the cable of the required length is purchased, it remains to finally draw up the scheme of its laying, for which it is necessary to calculate the step value (in the diagram - under the letter "D"). This is calculated according to the following formula:

D = 100 × S / LD

All data for calculation we already have.

Heating Cable Stacking Step Shanding Calculator

If the installation step is obtained by a more than 300 mm, then the "zebra effect" can appear - the explicit alternation of the heated stripes on the floor. So you have to purchase a cable a few more lengths.

Now everything is ready for the final compilation of the "warm floor" laying scheme. It is best to perform with accurate observance of scale, and in the process of work constantly have at hand.

When the scheme is ready, all materials and tools are available, you can move to the embodiment of the project.

Conducting installation work

As an example, the process of laying cable heating floors on a pre-prepared insulated base will be stepped in step by step.

Illustration Brief description of the operation
KB2.To begin with - once again check the completeness: 1-factory packaging; 2 - a passport that is usually applied and detailed installation instructions. It should be prepared in advance to study - the concrete model can have their own nuances. 3 - Two-housing heating cable in the bay. 4 - "Cold End". It, with particular need, you can build up with a wire of the same section, with careful insulation of the compound, but it is better, of course, to do with a "regular" length. 5 - polymer corrugation for laying a thermal sensor with a signal cable. 6 - a mounting plate made of metal ribbons - cuts into the desired size when mounting. 7 - cap-plug.
KB4As already mentioned, it will have to be used separately to buy the model of the thermostatic switching unit and control, complete with a thermal sensor.
KB3An example of a finished laying scheme, made on a scale on a lined paper - very convenient when carrying out installation work.
KB6.To begin with, we prepare the slot to install the thermostatic block. To do this, in the selected point, the crown of the nest under the standard conversion is closed. About the height of its installation - mentioned above.
KB7A vertical line is watched from the cut-off socket - to the intersection with the floor surface. It will become a benchmark for cutting out stages, 20 × 20 mm in a section - it will hide the mounting "cold end" and a corrugation with a thermal sensor. You can immediately provide a method for fixing cables - for example, consolidate several wire or plastic clamps in a cut out fine - they will subsequently pull the cables and the tube into a neat beam.
KB8.The next step is to be thoroughly cleaning the room from small construction garbage. If there is a powerful construction vacuum cleaner at their disposal, then it will be useful to use it.
KB9.Another operation is a thorough priming of the concrete surface of the floor. For this, deep penetration compositions are usually used - it gives a great effect of dedication of the surface and guaranteed to create a good clutch of the future screed with the base.
KB10.Although in the following version, the floor already has thermal insulation, a good addition to it will be a foil insulation, laid by a reflective layer toward the room. The reflection of the heat flux up will necessarily subsequently affect the economy of the "warm floor".
KB11Fungalized material strips are stacked tightly. The links of the joints are sampled by a special foil scotch.
KB13In accordance with the scheme, assembly strips are cut. They have holes, and consolidate the planks on the floor surface with the help of dowels or even simply self-tapping screws - the problems will not be. These barns will not experience any significant loads - they are needed only for laying and fixing the cable to its fill with a screed. Step setting step - arbitrary, ranging from 0.5 to 1 meter.
KB14Working with mounting planks is very convenient, but in some cases they have to refuse. For example, the structure of the floor is such that a layer of waterproofing is close to the base surface, and it is strictly prohibited to break it with perforation. In this case, there is another convenient approach - the reinforcing fiberglass mesh with a large cell (50 × 50 mm or more is covered on the base. The cable when laying can be configured to the grid, and it also will also serve to strengthen the finishing screed. The steel reinforcing grid is not recommended - just for safety reasons, since high voltage electrocabel and fittings are not the best "Neighborhood".
KB15You can go to the laying of the cable. Start with fixation in the area of ​​the coupling. The remaining length of the "cold end" is immediately estimated, so that it is enough for switching to switching on the terminal block of the thermostatic unit, without stretching and completely eliminating the intersection with the heating part of the cable. Usually, the cold end is neatly placed along the wall - it can be hidden in the slot between the wall and a layer of foil insulation.
KB17"Figure" layouts constantly turns with the scheme. The fixation of the cable on the mounting spacecraft is made using the existing "musty" existing on them. In the case of the use of the grid, the cable is as follows using, for example, plastic fumes. The main goal is to ensure that the cable will definitely at the planned scheme, and its loops did not push up so that it does not interfere with the further fill of the screed.
KB18.Complete the installation process with reliable fixation of the end coupling.
KB19The desired length of the corrugation is cut off, and the thermal sensor is neatly entered into it.
KB20.The sensor itself must be reached to the opposite end of the corrugation, which is then immediately closed in a set of plug. This cork will not allow the solution to get into the tube when pouring the screed.
KB21The finished corrugation with the sensor is fixed with a muffled end strictly in the middle between the two cable threads, the parallery, so that the sensor is at a distance of about 500 mm from the bending of the cable loop. The free end of the corrugated tube is started into the stroke cutting in the wall and stretches up to the nest to the installation of the thermostat. It is very important to prevent the dawn of the tube - the radius of its bend should not be less than 50 mm.
KB22.After that, the "holly end" is immediately placed in the bar. It happens that in the same channel there are 220 V. Thermostatic power supply unit, all wires and corrugates are gently assembled into the "pigtack" - the clamps have already been fixed in the fine. After that, it is quite possible to immediately close this channel with the wires of construction distribution (cement, plaster - depending on the type of wall and the estimated future finish).
KB23Before proceeding to further transactions, it is necessary to test the electrical part to the correctness of switching, efficiency and safety. The cable is ringing the tester and its overall resistance is performed - this indicator should not be seriously different from the passport characteristics. Preferably, in the same stage, make sure that the maintenance reliability is possible - but it is possible to measure its resistance using a megommeter, and it is not far from everyone (maybe you still have to invite an electrician?) Then conduct switching of wires on the thermostat terminal block (according to the applied to it scheme). When trimming wires in the desired size, their ends are recommended to immediately invad or enhance copper tips. After switching, you can try to connect network nutrition and make a trial start, but only short-term, literally 40 - 60 seconds. This time should be enough to ensure that the control unit is performed, and explicit signs of heating will appear on the cable. After that, the system is completely dealers. And to ensure that even accidental inclusion is guaranteed, the best solution will be completely dismantled to dismantle the thermostat unit and remove it until all construction and installation work is complete. Its subsequent installation is a matter of minutes.
KB24.Before filling, the screed is recommended to check the reliability of the cable fixation. There is another nuance - separate manufacturers of such heating systems with one of the conditions for providing the warranty exhibit the presence of an accurate laying scheme, and even dismiss for this in the passport a special page-form. This scheme is already finally, with an accurate "reference" to the parameters of the room, the design of the laying, and the location of the key elements of the circuit - the thermal sensor and the thermostator, the terminal and connecting couplings are applied.
KB25You can go to the final stage - to the pouring of the screed. In order to ensure its contact with the base, in the foil insulation in the strings between the cable threads, the "windows", a rectangular or diamond form, up to 200 and a width of about 50 mm are cut. The step between the slots is about 1000 mm in one row, and the neighboring rows are made with a displacement of half the step, so that the "chess" placing "window"
KB26.All over the perimeter of the room, in the corners between the wall and the floor, the elastic damper tape passes, which will become a compensator of the thermal expansion of the screed. The following step is the installation of beacons, with such a calculation so that the resulting screed thickness is at least 30 mm (optimally 50 mm). Next - the selected solution is mixed, it is laid out on the surface, right on top of the laid cable and rolls along the beaches with the help of the rule - everything is the same as when there is a conventional screed fill.
KB27It is impossible to lease air bubbles in the thickness of the solution, as they can seriously reduce the efficiency of the system. In addition, they often become the cause of overheating and brave cable.
KB28.The minimum rows for pouring the screed during which no work should be treated at all - week. Moreover, in the first days it is advisable to regularly moisten the surface so that the concrete can evenly gain marching strength and not crackdown. After moistening, the screed is recommended to cover with a polyethylene film.
KB29.Only a week later, at best, it will be possible to go to laying the ceramic tile, naturally, having carried out the necessary priming of the surface. Special nuances when installing a tiled cover is no longer foreseen, except that only special glue adapted to the conditions of operation of the "warm floor" should use. The timing of glue - in this case, so far nothing says, and there can be no reference to the full launch of the heating system. In any case, it will have to wait for about a month so that the screed scores the necessary strength. At the same time, attempts are unacceptable to speed up this process with the inclusion of heating cable! The launch of the warm floor system during complete readiness is made not immediately at all scheduled power, and in stages. On the first day, 15 ° C is installed on the thermostat, another five degrees are added, and so on, before going to the settlement mode.

Installation of "warm floor" using mesh heating mats

Features of mesh mats

This type of heating elements for the "warm sex" won very widely popular - due to the significant simplification of the styling process.

Mat itself, in principle, is the same heating cable (more often - two-housing), but it is already laid out in the factory setting on the base in the form of a fiberglass mesh and recorded on it with the desired step. It is necessary to roll out such a mat along the length on the floor surface - and immediately ensures the closure of a large plot.

The use of mesh heating mats can significantly accelerate the implementation of installation work.
The use of mesh heating mats can significantly accelerate the implementation of installation work.

Another important advantage: such a "warm floor" makes it possible to carry out the surface cladding with ceramic tiles even without pouring the screed - directly to the unfolded and fixed mats, increasing, of course, with the thickness of the adhesive layer to 8 ÷ 10 mm. Fiberglass reinforcement will give even a too thick layer of glue necessary strength.

More unless it is planned to update the old tile and at the same time give the heating function, some very labor-intensive operations can be avoided. If the old coating is stable, and the proper thermal insulation is provided under it, then the heating mats can be laid out directly on it, and then closed with a new tile. The only thing it will be necessary to provide is to ensure the desired adhesion of glue with the lower layer of ceramics, but such a problem is solved quite simply - abrasive treatment or, even easier - applying the "concrete contact" type primer.

It is possible to mount a warm floor to the old ceramic coating, without resorting to its dismantling
It is possible to mount a warm floor to the old ceramic coating, without resorting to its dismantling

The cost of such mats is somewhat higher than the usual heating cable - but they are worth it. They are usually implemented by ready-made sets of the set length, with a thermal power indicators specified in the passport - there is an opportunity to choose a specific room. Standard diameters of the heating cable used: about 3 and 5 mm - it is important to consider with the finish laying of ceramic tiles.

The installation order is submitted by the example in the table-instructions below.

Glue for tile


Illustration Brief description of the operation
MT1As usual, start with the acquisition of the necessary mat and the thermostat unit with the sensor, checking the completeness.
Mt3The next operation is the preparation of the socket under the thermostat block and the slit of the vertical stages to it (the same as when the cable is mounted). But now it takes another stable - on the surface of the floor, in which the corrugated corrugation with the thermal sensor will be laid.
MT4The cross section of the stages is the same, 20 × 20 mm, length - approximately 600 ÷ 700 mm from the wall. It is most convenient for the beginning to cut through its borders with grinding.
MT5After that, it is no longer difficult for choosing a "core" with a perforator.
MT6.Both stages converge in the corner and are a continuation of one another.
MT8.Next, cleaning is carried out, then priming the floor surface. After drying, the primer must immediately put the thermal sensor on the prepared place. It is introduced into the corrugated tube, the end of which is muffled with a plug (everything is the same as in the case of a cable). Stacking starts from a horizontal site, from the planned point of location of the sensor itself. The corrugated tube can be temporarily fixed in a fine, for example, silicone "hot glue" using a pistol.
MT9Then the vertical portion is stacked, neatly, not allowing the tube fracture in the corner.
Mt10.Before laying mats, it is recommended to immediately close the horizontal finably with a hormone glue solution for the tile, so that there is no empty cavity here. The solution is leveling up to the surface level of the base.
MT 11.Go to laying mats - according to the scheme developed earlier. The main label nuances are saved - invalid cable crossing. Parallel strips of mats are laid with an interval between them about 50 mm. When laying a mat at the place of installation of the thermal sensor, it is necessary to provide that the sensor itself is located in the center of the cable loop, both in the width and step.
MT12Change the direction of laying - easy. For this, the fiberglass grid is neatly cut, so as not to affect the cable.
MT13Next - you can continue to lay the mat in the right direction.
MT14Fixing mats to the floor can be made by the same silicone thermopystole. Some models have an applied self-adhesive layer from below, which provides the necessary fixation to the projected base - there will be enough pressed mat to the floor.
MT1311There are also special types of mats - their mesh base is made elastic, which makes it possible to stretch it on the floor surface, while changing the patch of the cable loops. Included with such mats usually go special hooks with a self-adhesive platform (they are marked with arrows on the illustration). The hooks are installed in the right place, and then the mat is stretched between them.
MT13111The hooks must be put at the beginning and end of each strip of heating mat. Otherwise, the principle of laying does not change.
MT132.Heating mats of this type are also good because they make it possible to close complex areas: they can be pulled out diagonally or, for example, to give them the form of a trapezium.
Mt15After the mats are laid, an electrical parameter check is carried out, switching with a control unit, trial start - everything is the same as in the case of a cable. If everything is fine - the system is de-energized and passed directly to the laying of ceramic flooring.
Mt17The required amount of tile glue is mixed (adapted to the conditions of the warm floor). The glue is laid out by areas directly to the mats, and at first it is desirable to distribute the usual spatula, so that the thickness from 8 to 12 mm is obtained (depending on the diameter of the cable). Then the rosex surface of the adhesive layer is then a toothaper with a height of a crest 10 mm, and the tile laying is made.
Mt19When manipulating with a gear spatter, caution should be taken to not damage the insulation of the cable. During the work, special attention is paid to the inadmissibility of leaving even the slightest emptiness, especially in places where the heating cable itself passes.
Mt20The tile carries out to the surface, with the observance of the desired gaps and the provision of overall horizontal coating - everything, as with normal facing. After laying, it will be possible to navigate the semi by the expiration of the specified lifting manufacturer. But this, again - is not a reason to immediately launch the "warm floor"! The optimal solution will withstand the pause at least 20-25 days, and then perform a gradual, step output of the system at the calculated power.

The tile glue consumption will be definitely higher than when laying a tile on a flat surface of the screed. But this is justified by deliverance from the need to fill the screed and from long waiting for its maturation.

The consumption of tile glue is somewhat said at the end of the article.

Video: Animated demonstration of the order of the installation of "warm floor" from the mesh mats

"Warm floor" using rod infrared mats

Design features

This is another variety of eclectic heating systems, perfectly combined with ceramic finishing coating.

Each heating rod is independent of another
Each heating rod is independent of another

Structurally, such a mat is two cocked tires located in parallel one another at a certain distance. The heating elements themselves are established between them - special carbon rods, which are capable of generating infrared radiation, carrying thermal energy to considerable distances, to a meeting with an absorbing barrier (in our case, such an obstacle will become a ceramic tile).

The rods are connected in parallel, that is, each of them is absolutely independent of others. In addition, they have the property of self-regulation, that is, able to "lock" when a certain heating temperature is reached. This gives a number of advantages - for example, a "warm floor" system can be installed throughout the area of ​​the room, and further carry out the permutation of furniture or other interior items at its discretion, without regard to the matte layout scheme.

An exemplary switching scheme of rod mats is shown in the illustration:

Typical layout diagram and switching of rod heating mats
Typical layout diagram and switching of rod heating mats

1 - heating element - carbon rod.

2 - Conducting conductor - tire.

3 - wires providing switching of electrocups.

4 - Connections of switching wires with a Tockey Tire Mata.

5 - "Cold Equries" Mata.

6 - Insulating clutches at the end of the tires of the Mata.

7 - Standard thermal sensor.

8 - thermostatic system control unit with terminal switching block.

9 - wires of supply voltage 220 V.

Work with such mats is quite simple, but will require commutation operations with the performance of reliable insulation of the compounds. All details - in the table below.

Installation work

Illustration Brief description of the operation
IK1A standard set of a rod "warm floor": 1 - a rod mat, can be purchased by the desired length, to close the entire floor surface in the room. 2 - Passport of the product with the factory warranty and with the applied installation instructions. 3 - Switching wire in the bay - will serve for the creation of a "cold ends" and for connecting mats to the electrical circuit. 4 - corrugation for the thermal sensor and the plug for it. 5 - Terminals for switching - usually these are metal sleeves in an insulating shell. 6 - heat shrink tubes for insulation of connecting nodes.
IC3Do not forget to immediately purchase a thermostat with a temperature sensor
IK2.In addition to all this, we will need a foil insulation, in terms of room size. Without it, the correct work of infrared mats will be ensured.
IK4.A thorough cleaning of the room is carried out, the surface is dedicated and its priming of deep penetration. It is recommended to perform twice applying soil.
IK6.On the stroke and cutting the socket under the thermostat - there is no point in stopping: everything is the same as in the case of mesh resistive mats. The thermal sensor in the corrugated tube is immediately stacked. The only difference is the horizontal finably at the location of the head of the thermal sensor do not close the solution.
IC7Folgized insulation, reflective the surface toward the room. The joints of the canvas are punished with waterproof, better - foil scotch.
IK8.Rolling Mata is more convenient to start from the installation site of the thermal sensor. The head of the sensor should come to the center of the Mata and settle down strictly in the middle between two parallel rods. The mats are rolled in a straight line, from the wall to the wall. The distance from the walls (and on the front, and on the side) is withstanding about 100 mm.
IR9.When the opposite wall is reached, it is necessary to change the direction of further rolling mat. For this, the lippers are snacking a cocked tire opposite to the turning center.
IK11Important condition - the incision must be carried out in the center of the cable section between adjacent rods
IC10Mat turns in the right direction, and its rolling continues. As a rule, most of these systems allow the total length of the mat to 25 meters - this is usually enough to fully cover a fairly spacious room.
IC12It is necessary to provide a fixation of the mat to the foil surface. It is easy to perform scotch bands, sticking them along ...
IK13... And if necessary - and across mats.
IK14After laying, switch to switching operations using the included cable.
IK15To begin with - it is necessary to immediately connect the cutting sections of the current-passing tire. The first step from the cropped end removed isolation - about 10 mm.
IK16A crimp terminal from the kit is taken, and the expanded conductor is neatly introduced into it on the one hand. Then the crimp is made to make a reliable contact compound.
IK18.A segment of the switching cable of the required length is prepared, and from its ends isolation is removed, also by about 10 mm.
IK19The wire shrink tube is on the wire, which is included. Temporarily shifts to the side, so as not to interfere with the burn.
IR20.The end of the cable is started on the opposite side of the sleeve-terminal, and also thoroughly crimped. As a result, a high-quality connection of the conductors is obtained.
IR21Now it is necessary to ensure the heating of the pierced sleeve - its insulating sheath will take place and tightly degenerate the connection. Heating is convenient to perform a construction hairdryer.
IR22After that, the terminal connection additionally moves the previously dressed heat shrink tube. After her warm-up, it turns out a reliable, tightly adjacent two-layer insulation of the connection.
IR23.Go to the second cropped end of the tire - and repeat the operation with the opposite end of the switching wire. The interrupted chain is restored again. Similar actions are carried out at all sections of the incision of tires. In addition, it is very often necessary to quiet and "cold ends": the principle of connection and isolation is exactly the same.
IR24.Now it is necessary to provide high-quality isolation at the farthest ends of both cunning tires. Such insulating couplings are easy to perform from a heat shrinking, which, after the warming, is thoroughly crimped so that it turns out completely hermetic coating. It is possible (even desirable) to perform similar insulation in two layers.
IR25Checking, switching on a thermostatic block, trial launch - without any features, everything is the same as described above.
IK26.Making sure the system's performance, it is de-energized and transferred to facing work. First of all, the windows, rectangular or diamonds are cut in the foil insulation - about the same way as in the case of a resistive cable. These windows should be located only between the rods, not finding them.
IC27It turns out about such a picture.
IK28.Mandatory condition - one cutout should come to the head of the thermal sensor!
IR30.Next, you can do one of two ways. The first is a fill thin (about 20-25 mm) screed. However, there is an opportunity to immediately lay ceramic coating.
IK31The prepared adhesive composition is distributed over the surface a sufficiently thick layer, while achieving the absence of voids and uniform density. Then the grooves are performed by a toothed spatula, which already contains ceramic tiles.
IR32.The glue solution is cooked sufficiently dense so that it does not grow under its weight and under the weight of the tile. The layer thickness should be such that, taking into account the thickness of the ceramic coating, the total height was approximately 30 mm - this condition for the correct operation of the infrared rod floor. Running the system is commissioned - in compliance with the same requirements mentioned earlier.

A few words about the consumption of tiled glue for electric "warm floor"

As already mentioned, glue for floors with electrical heating should be special, adapted for specific operating conditions. This must be specified in passport data and in the instructions for applying a specific composition.

Popular brands of adhesive compositions for ceramic tiles adapted to "warm floors"
Popular brands of adhesive compositions for ceramic tiles adapted to "warm floors"

If the ceramic tile will be laid on a warm floor, covered with a solid screed, then the flow remains conventional, depending to greater extent only from the geometric dimensions of the tile itself. This is the case when the laying is planned directly on mesh or rod mats - consumption in this case will be significantly higher, and it is not easy to assess the scale of its acquisition.

To facilitate the reader to the task, below is a convenient calculator, which will help quickly and with a sufficient degree of accuracy "Frequency", which amount of tile glue is required in one way or another.

Calculator calculating the consumption of tiled glue for electric "warm floor"

Go to calculations

At the end of the publication, it is worth staying on another nuance. The fact is that there is a special kind of electric "warm floor", in which film heating infrared elements are used.

In this article, they were not considered for the reason that the film does not "harmonize" with ceramic tiles. This is due to the complexity in ensuring the reliability of the tile, as there will be no good contact of the adhesive layer with the basis of the floor. And in general, in truth, such a warm floor was originally developed for other purposes - it is perfectly combined with laminate, linoleum, wooden array, parquet, etc.

However, we will not impose your opinion, since the network you can find examples of tile laying and on such a warm floor. Another question is how it is advisable if there are other solutions that were described in publications that ensure the stability of ceramic coverage, and high operational performance.

Video: An example of laying infrared film "warm floor" under ceramic coating

Create comfort in the house and mounted Electric "Warm floor" Under the tile with your own hands, it is quite possible, especially since you can choose several types of equipment that is characteristic of both laying and operational characteristics.

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But that the result obtained does not disappoint, it is important to correctly calculate the power of the "warm floor" before starting work, prepare an accurate laying scheme and take into account the structural features of the floor and the functional purpose of the room.

Laying of a warm floor under the tile

Laying of a warm floor under the tile

Types of electric "warm floors"

Installation of "warm floors" chases several purposes at the same time. Most often he is given the role Additional source of heat Especially in tandem with convection appliances, for example, traditional radiators.

In this case, the heated warm air rises, and the space at the bottom of the room remains cold. This is especially noticeable to residents of private cottages with unheated basements and the owners of the first floors, but not only. The "warm floor" can also become the only source, but in this case it is more rational to establish a system with a water heat carrier.

Although for small areas of the premises, electric varieties of "warm floors" are the best option: on its installation, for example, you can think about repairing In bathroom .

For the device of warm electric floors, different equipment and materials are used, they only relate to them that they use electricity to work. So, an additional heat source can be created using:

  • cable styling which is made according to a predetermined scheme, taking into account the characteristics of the room;
  • Heating mats from fiberglass with cables laid in them;
  • infrared heating elements Mounted on a special film, which is why this "warm floor" is often called "film".

What kind of "warm floors" choose depends on many factors: objective and subjective, before making the final choice, it is necessary to deal with the main constructive and operational differences, as well as the features of the installation.

Installation of electric heating floor under the tile. Video:

What "Warm floor" is better to do under the tile: nuances of choice

If the installation is selected cable , then in this case it is necessary to take into account that it will be necessary to make a light tie thickness on average 30-35 mm . This leads to a significant loss of ceiling height, as well as an increase in the load on the supporting structures of the house, which in some cases may be unacceptable.

And although the price is the most accessible option, but additional costs will be required, quite tangible, to buy dry mixes, components, etc. It should also be considered the complexity of the upcoming work.

Special difficulty represents the execution of calculations, first of all Cable lengths defined not only by the area of ​​the room, but also selected laying scheme which, in turn, is determined by the capacity of the necessary thermal radiation. When drafting the scheme, the location of furniture is taken into account, which cannot be laid cable.

In the bathroom

In the bathroom

As a rule, the cable is purchased in length, and additionally buy all the others Elements and details : Temperature regulators, sensors, fasteners, etc., although there are ready-made kits designed for a specific area.

Termaomats Based on fiberglass - this is also a heating cable, only laid as the basis, which greatly facilitates the process of installation and settlement: Only the part of the area is taken into account, which is not settled by furniture objects, especially heavy.

Especially relevant to their operation in houses with wooden floors, as they can be installed in the design of the draft floor - the screed for them is not mandatory, but if it is performed, its thickness is small. The greatest complexity is the performance of cables compounds, which in this case does not constitute a one-piece design.

But despite this, as well as at a higher cost of 1 m 2Such a warm floor, it is very popular among country house owners and urban apartments.

Infrared Warm floor under the tile

Infrared Warm floor under the tile

Often Film "Warm floor" under the tile Or another flooring is chosen with motivating that it is not a source of electromagnetic radiation.

In addition, its installation does not require a tie device, but if it is placed under the tile, then for the installation, special elastic adhesive blends should be purchased for "warm floors", providing good thermal conductivity and the absence of deformation processes under high temperatures.

In terms of cost, this is the most expensive "warm floor", although very economical, therefore higher costs at the initial stage are compensated by less electricity flow during operation.

Resistant and self-regulating cables for a warm floor

When choosing a cable "warm floor" under the tile necessarily the question of which type of wire is to use for this: Resistant or Self-regulating .

The first during operation produce the same amount of thermal power, the second, depending on the degree of proper heating, that is, the more they heated, the less heat produce. Because of this property, they are considered more fireproof.

Resistant cables are single and twinels, and the main difference between them consists in a connection method: to create a closed circuit, both of the end of single-core cables are connected to the power supply.

First one end connects, for example, in the mounting box, but to the thermostat. Laying is made according to the selected scheme, and then the circuit of the circuit is the second, cold, end, which is also displayed in the mounting box.

Installation of a warm floor under the tile

Installation of a warm floor under the tile

Connecting cables is carried out using couft that fall under the tie. The two-housing resistant cable has a connection with one end, the plug is installed on the second. The presence of a second current-handed vein provides a chain closedness.

The main disadvantage of resistant cables is that they generate a constant amount of heat that when difficulties occurred with its tap, it may disable the system. It should also be noted that the two-housing cables are more attractive both from the point of view of installation and due to the fact that they are electromagnetic radiation It has a smaller intensity.

Self-regulating cables do not overheat due to its original structure representing a particular sequence of elements connected to a single chain, of which the wires of the wire are formed. There is a polymer gasket between them, which acts as a thermal conductory.

In contrast to the resistant cable, self-regulating does not have permanent resistance: it depends on the temperature. The higher the temperature, the lower the resistance in the cable, respectively, is released and less heat.

By the installation method, self-regulating cables do not have significant differences from resistant products, but their cost is significantly higher.

Laying of "Warm Paul" under the tile: Benefits and Installation

Ceramic tile - Durable, hygienic and practical flooring with one significant disadvantage: high thermal conductivity, due to which its surface always remains cold. But the device of "warm sex" allows this operational disadvantage to turn into dignity, since there are no problems with heat transfer in such a coating.

Therefore, if the "warm floor" indoors is the only source of heating, Choosing tile Optimal, as it will provide good conductivity for heat generated even when using high power cables.

"Warm floor" has important operational advantages, including:

  • Creating an optimal temperature regime due to the uniform distribution of heat all over the room, including in its lower part;
  • reliability and long service life;
  • safety: The presence of electromagnetic radiation is not required to prove, but its influence is not so dangerous as they say;
  • The ability to accurate temperature adjustment, Which allows you to create comfortable conditions, but with economical use of electricity.

The "warm floor" in the house is particularly effective during the off-season, when there is no need to start the heating system, but the temperature in the house cannot be called comfortable.

Also on cold winter days, you can very quickly evaluate all the advantages of the "warm floor" that allow you to enjoy comfort in the house.

But for this, before choosing a "warm floor" under the tile or another coating, you must correctly calculate it power . Of course, in this case it is better to use the help of specialists, but also you need to know the main guidelines.

How to choose a warm floor under the tile

How to choose a warm floor under the tile

The average power for premises in the house is:

  • Bedroom - 100-120 kW / m 2;
  • Children's - 150 kW / m 2;
  • Hall, kitchen - 120-150 kW / m 2;
  • Bathroom, Toilet - 180 kW / m 2;
  • Glazed loggia - 180-200 kW / m 2.

Of course, these data are averaged values, but they are quite easy to navigate them in order to calculate the power of the "warm floor".

When calculating the "warm floor", it is necessary to take into account what the source of the heating of the room it is: Basic or Additional . Also, during the calculations, the thermal conductivity of the insulation used is taken into account, which can significantly affect the efficiency of the system and save electricity.

But you should consider some nuances of this type of heating, namely:

  1. Increased load on the electrical network at home, which should be able to cope with high power;
  2. To put "warm floor" can only be at the stage of repair in the room, Since the installation is associated with the conduct of certain general structures, although their volume depends on the type of the selected thermal element.

It should also be borne in mind that, although such structures are characterized by high reliability and have a long service life, in the event of an emergency, the replacement of the element of the element can turn into a full repair indoor.

Installation of "warm floor" under the tile: the main stages

If it is decided to carry out the installation of "warm sex" on its own, then it is necessary to carry out a large amount of pre-work. First, it is necessary to find out the state of the base to which the cable or film will be laid: it should be smooth, without defects, cracks, etc.

If necessary, pouring a thin leveling layer of the screed with cement mortar or using special mixtures. The second option is more preferable in terms of the time factor.

Next, it is necessary to carry out all calculations for the power and number of material, make up scheme of laying . When drafting a cable laying scheme, such requirements should be taken into account:

  • Minimum distance from the wall to the cable 7-10 cm ;
  • The location of turns and spirals should be held at no less 8 cm from each other;
  • Cable turns should not intersect or block each other.

It is also necessary to determine the place of installation of the mounting box: if the "warm floor" is placed in rooms with high humidity, then its mount should be made on the adjacent wall from the opposite side.

In the mounting box produced Cable factory , as well as the installation of the thermostat, so free access to it should be provided to it. As a rule, it is installed at the bottom of the wall at approximately height. 30 cm from gender.

Be sure to prepare for installation corrugated pipe or special coupling in which the cable will be connected.

It may not be a mandatory element, but if any problems occur, it will not be necessary to repair the entire floor, it will be enough to get to the connecting places, so it is not necessary to neglect this.

Heat insulation

To send the streams of heat up in the room, you will need to spend Heat insulation Floor, for which you can use insulation up to 4 mm thick, additionally, it is possible to put a foil coating for the reflection of heat waves.

If the work is carried out in a private house and we are not talking about the room above the unheated basement, then the insulation issues can be neglected, since all the heat produced will remain in the house, however, will spread in different directions. But in order to guarantee the necessary indicators in a particular room, without heat insulation can not do.

The best material for thermal insulation will be Penophol provided with a special self-adhesive layer and foil coating. Installation of the insulation must be made with an occasion of the walls in 5-8 cm , surplus after the end of work is simply cut by a painting knife.

The damper tape laid on top of the thermal insulation material around the wall perimeter will serve as a compensator when heated.

The cable can be laid directly on the insulation, but it is recommended to use a special metal grid that eliminates direct contact between them.

Technology of the device "warm floor" under the tile

To control the "warm floor" used Temoregulator (thermostat ). It is with his help that you can follow the functioning of this heating system, as well as set the temperature mode, turn on / off the "warm floor".

According to the compiled scheme, the cable or fastening of thermomats is made. For safety and accurate temperature control control, the temperature sensors are set to the installation box and the thermostat.

The location of its location is space between two adjacent cable turns. It is necessarily placed in a corrugated tube, which is stuck with a tape or other material, in order to prevent the solution from the pouring of the screed.

The next step - Connection and Testing System . Determination and power is determined, the data obtained with the product specified in the passport or instructions are checked. If everything is fine, you can start the pouring of the screed and laying the ceramic tile, which is performed in the traditional way, but using special adhesive mixtures for "warm floors".

When pouring the screed should be observed two practically mutually exclusive factor: its thickness should be sufficient to withstand certain loads and serve as a reliable protection of cable elements of the floor from damage, but on the other should not be violated Thaw heat .

Therefore, the optimal thickness should be considered 30-35 mm . For a screed, you can independently prepare a cement-sandy solution, but it is better to use building mixtures specially designed for "warm floors". If stacked Infrared "Warm floor" under the tile The algorithm of action is practically no different, but there are some nuances.

On the prepared, aligned and deemed and dust, the base is placed insulation with a reflective coating and fixation is made on it. Film sheets With liquid nails.

Temperature sensors are placed directly to the surface of the film warm floor and also connected to the thermostat. Further, testing is performed and the base of the base under the tile is made, for example, the plywood or other sheet material is laid, which will become the base for the tile.

Make your home electric warm floor under the tile with your own hands, and rejoice warm and savings on the equipment. Additional heating of the room will be very by the way in the cold period. Sometimes the specified floors can serve as independent elements of the heating system, which will relieve you from bulky batteries.

The absence of heating panels allows you to create new interior design options.

The heated surface of the floor is very convenient in those rooms where a man walks barefoot ( In bathroom or bedroom). Mounted electrobes under linoleum, parquet and even under the tile in the bathroom. And most importantly, you can create such a miracle at home yourself, without the help of professionals.

Electrical floors

The modern market offers several modifications of finished electrical sets:

  1. The first option is from a special cable (component in the corresponding mats).
  2. The second option is film infrared.

Electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself

Self-mounted infrared electric floor

Perform the installation of the system Heating floor Can even beginner. Now we will tell about the installation stages.

Step-by-step installation of electric floor

Floor alignment tie

  1. Initially, align the surface of the floor. The material for the screed is chosen any. The main task is to achieve a flat surface. The damping tape located around the perimeter of the room will help to avoid deformation of the screed in the heating process. Electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself
  2. When the mass is driving, proceed to the next stage - laying a layer of heat transfer material. We just roll off on a flat surface.
  3. Then, with the help of liquid nails, the heating system itself is determined to thermal insulation coating. Wires are placed in the stroke leading to the temperature regulator. Electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself
  4. Next, on top of the film infrared floor, we establish temperature sensors. The sensor wiring should be protected from heating, for this it is placed in a protective corrugated pipe. Testing System "Infrared Warm Paul"
  5. We carry out the system testing. Turn on the electric floor to minimal power. Then begin to increase the heating temperature to the maximum value. Electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself
  6. If everything is fine, then we fall over the heating system, the waterproofing coating.
  7. We lake the reinforcing grid (see the figure above).
  8. Now the surface is ready for the final layer. You can proceed to laying the tile.

Montage with your own cable electric boards Warm floor mounting circuit

We prepare the foundation

  1. If the electrobol is the only source of heat in the room, you should take care of the quality heat insulation of the base. This in particular concerns the cases when the unheated room is located under the room.
  2. We prepare the floor surface. We make an aligning screed. Be sure to cover the surface of the primer. This will prevent the appearance of mold. Electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself
  3. Next, put polystyrene foam sheets. It is very good if they are coated with a metallized layer, which will reflect heat radiation. The thickness of the plates varies depending on which room you will insulate. If work is carried out in the usual room, then 30 mm coverage is enough. And if you should warm the balcony, then use the 50mm plates. Warving a house when the soil is located under it, apply 100-millimeter sheets.
  4. The polystyrene foam is attached to the floor with screw screws. Electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself
  5. Next, lay the reinforcing grid. Its fastened with long screws. They will serve as an additional fastener and for insulation plates.

Determine the length of the heating cable

  1. Initially, the room drawing should be drawn. It is done on a scale at millimeter paper. We note the location of large-sized furniture, which will be installed stationary. Electric warm floor under the tile do it yourself
  2. Considering the required power of heating, which is indicated in the characteristic of the cable, outline the location of the heating element. At the same time, note that it is necessary to make an indentation from the edges of at least 5 cm. The length of the cable will depend on whether this is the source of heating indoors or not.
  3. Also matters and the power indicators of the cable wire. After all, it can be single-core and twilight. The first option is connected to power from two ends, and the second is only on the one hand.

Install the temperature regulator for warm electrobol Installing the sensor for warm electrobol

  1. Control the power of electrical heating should be a special thermostat. It can be mechanical or electronic. By type of construction, overhead models and embedded are distinguished.
  2. There are a regulator next to the main wiring. If it is equipped with a remote thermal sensor, then the length of its cable should be measured and then select the location of the control mechanism.
  3. The built-in thermostat models are stacked together with electrical wiring cables and temperature sensor wires.
  4. Protect the sensor from the deformation that the screed can provoke, the tube will help, the edge of which we grind the tape. The remote part of the sensor has 40 centimeters from the floor.

Laying the heating cable

  1. First you should lay a special mounting grid. Then, with the help of special plastic homutics, the cable itself is mounted, according to the pre-drawn scheme.
  2. Next, the heating element is connected to the thermostat. Testing the operation of the system, starting with the minimum heating power, which is gradually adjusted to the maximum value. 3. Let's give some time to work the floor heating system. Then turn off the power. Warm electric floor laying scheme

We put the tile on the warm electric furnace

  1. On top of the cable laid another layer of mounting mesh. It will facilitate the procedure for laying a tile.
  2. A porcelain or tiled coating is fixed using conventional tile glue.

Warm floor repair features

How to make an electric warm floor with your own hands, we found out. Now it is important to know about its repair in case of a fault. After all, everything can happen.

Detection of a warm floor fault

Cool days came, we include a warm floor system, and it does not work for some reason ... to be new - not rational, you have to open the flooring, then the screed, then re-installing the warm floor, then restore the laminate or tile (any other coating). It is much easier to contact the company that manufactures warm floors - it will save you money, time and nerves.

What is the "Warm floors" system?

Electric warm floor is a cable (or film), which is laid in a special way under the tie between the layer of thermal insulation and actually gender. This cable transmits the floor surface temperature. An employee of the repair company will make a diagnosis of a warm sex, will detect the cause of the situation, then it will be replaced or repaired by the nodes of the warm floor. With accuracy plus-minus 2 cm. The wizard will determine the place of damage to the cable and the dotable local manner will install the coupling.

Temperature controller for warm floors

To be able to track the floor temperature, adjust it, a special sensor is required, which also sometimes fails. It is corrected in companies that provide the services of the flooring and maintenance of warm floors.

In the case of warranty service, the company - the installer of this equipment is obliged to fulfill all repair work for free and in the shortest possible time. If the warm sex you managed to mount yourself, you will have to lay out the necessary amount to those skilled in the art.

Electric floor

"Warm floor" under electric tiles with their own hands is performed in accordance with the installed technology.

This design can serve as an alternative heating source or is used as a highly efficient addition of the main heating system.

The advantages and disadvantages of the system

The modern heating system "Warm floors" of electric type is one of the most convenient ways of heating rooms, both in urban and country conditions.

The design feature is the maximum uniform distribution of heat over the entire floor surface, as well as complete heating of the air masses inside the heated room.

Among other things, such a system has a number of indisputable advantages, including:

  • the possibility of using as an effective alternative source of the main heating system;
  • the absence in the interior of non-psychic and protruding elements of heating, including pipes and radiator batteries;
  • Virtually unlimited service life under compliance with the rules of operation of the heating system;
  • obtaining a uniform warm-up of the total area of ​​the heated surface, in the absence of overheating and insufficient heating of local sections;
  • the ability to set the optimal temperature of heating, the time for switching on and off the system using the thermostat;
  • Fitness for installation not only in residential, but also office or socially significant premises;
  • There is no need to acquire expensive and fairly bulky gas or solid fuel equipment.

Independent arrangement of the heating electrical system "Warm floor" will not require the acquisition of expensive professional tools or having any special skills.

Cable laying order

The essential disadvantages of the electrical heating system include high costs for the heat carrier, the need to arrange a powerful and non-overheating wiring, a supplemented efficient system of reliable grounding and a protective disconnection.

Heating cables emit an electromagnetic field capable of providing a negative impact on a person. It should be noted that this version of the heating system is not suitable for installation in low ceilings. A non-priest advantage of the electric construction "Warm floors" is absolutely complete compatibility with various types of flooring, including traditional tiles, modern porcelain stoneware and expensive natural stone.

Preparatory stage

Installing any heating system "Warm floor" begins with careful and competent preparation of the base. Laying cable and mats is performed exclusively on a flat and absolutely clean surface. At the starting stage of the preparation, it is necessary to make a complete dismantling of the old flooring with the removal of residues of paint or varnishes, dust and contaminants.

Then the elimination of all defects and irregularities are eliminated, and the so-called black band screed is made, thickness in the range of 3-7 cm.

smooth floor in the bathroom

Paul alignment

It should be remembered that the cement-sand screed will dry about a month, so sometimes it is advisable to give preference to self-leveling mixtures. Before making a screed on the surface stripped from old finishing materials and dirt, it is necessary to fix the perimeter of the room - a standard damper tape.

Technology laying a warm floor under the tile do it yourself

According to experts, it is advisable to use heating infrared or heating mats as additional heating, and, if necessary, to equip the main heating system, it is desirable to give preference to install the heating cable. Standard power heating elements:

  • in the bedroom - 100-150 W / MV;
  • in the kitchen and corridor - 150 W / MV;
  • On the balcony and loggia - 200 W / MV;
  • In the sanitary node - 150-180 W / MVI.
Warm floors under the tile

We put a warm floor under the tile

The step of the location of the heating elements should be calculated in accordance with the formula: 100 x total floor area / length of one cable section.

Cable floorsCable floors have a lot of advantages. Cable warm floor under the tile quickly and evenly warms up and easily mounted.

Guide to arrange a warm floor under the tile you will find here.

With the installation rules of the warm floor in the bathroom under the tile you can read the link.

Rod warm floor

The core type "Warm floors" is elastic thermomats, the basis of which is carbon rods combined with the help of power cables. The most frequently implemented systems have width indicators, not less than 0.82 m.

A constructive feature is the presence of conductive tires and heating elements located with a distance of 100 mm. The maximum possible is a continuous length equal to 25.0 m.

Electric floor on heat insulator

Sodle floor on insulation

The popularity of the installation of the rod system is due to versatility and compatibility with any kind of flooring, as well as full fire safety and minor load. Such heating elements can be installed in rooms with a very complex layout and a large number of furniture or carpets.

The need to dismantle and open the screed with the purpose of repairing the system, a high price, a lack of opportunity to use a foil substrate when arranged. Despite the fact that the manufacturers have announced the service life of ten years, according to consumers even in conditions of professional installation and compliance with the rules operation, the system is replaced by about five years.

Cable warm floor

Laying cable floorsAs practice shows, cable systems "Warm floor" are currently the most optimal option for arrangement under the tile.

Heating cables are mounted in a screed, and in accordance with the laying technology, the minimum indicators of the floor thickness may vary in the range of 30-50 mm.

In the modern realities of the heating system, the use of several types of cables presented are practiced:

  • Resistor elements based on one or two lived. This option is distinguished by a very simple device, working only for heating, the level of the intensity of which is regulated by the thermostat;
  • Self-regulating elements based on two lived with a fuel matrix located between them. The thermostat in the system is absent, and the level of heating is directly dependent on the air temperature inside the room. The disadvantages of this option include high cost and insufficient efficiency;
  • Electrical cable mats that are optimally suitable for arranging the "warm floor" system in rooms with low ceilings. Installation is very simple, and lies in the correct laying of mats and connect them to the power source.
Floors are warm - installation

Warm floor laying scheme

It is the cable version that is characterized by simplicity of installation, compared to laying water systems or structures of IR heating. It is easiest to carry out the independent installation of the heating system by laying under the finishing tile of the self-regulating cable, which is due to the lack of need to use the thermostat when arranged.

Using a two-core heating cable, it is possible to independently, with a minimum set of tools, equip the heating system in rooms with a complex layout made by a significant number of furniture.

Montage with your own hands

The features of the process of laying "warm floors" under the tile depend on the method of performing installation work and the heating elements used.

Layers stacked on the concrete base under the finishing trim, are presented:

  • self-leveling mixture;
  • heating cable or mat;
  • primer layer or tie.

It should be noted that the standard retreat from the walls must be at least 100 mm, and the installation of heating elements to the sections where large furniture and interior items are installed, not carried out. The fixation of the system on the previously completed tie is most often performed by mounting ribbon.

It is also very important to correctly select the location for the installation of the thermostat, to which you need to bring a separate wiring from the exit of the electrical power shield. It is possible to start finishing work only after a test check of the installed "warm floor" system will be conducted.

Insulated floorsSince in the bathroom high air humidity, the system of the warm floor should be thought out from the point of view of security. Warm floor under the tile - what is the best for the bathroom, read our advice.

The choice of technology and materials of laying a warm floor under the tile is a responsible stage. On the pros and cons of different types of warm floors, we will tell in this article.

The final stage of independent arrangement of the heating system "Warm floor" of an electric type is the finishing finish with floor facing materials.

Despite some, sometimes quite significant disadvantages, the heated flooring systems are still an extremely popular and popular option, allowing to enhance the comfort and quality of life in the premises of any destination.

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Electric warm flooring for styling under the tile

If there are minimal knowledge in the field of home electrician, many electrical work can be made independently. But at the same time, never forget the safety technique and perform all operations efficiently, in order not to redo it. In this article, you will get acquainted with the technology of laying an electric warm floor under the tile, and at its end, you can independently produce the entire sequence of installation.

The main varieties of electric warm floor

Before installing the installation, the type of electric floor is needed to choose the type and productivity. There are several varieties of them:

  • Heating cable . The most common type of electrobol, optimally combining availability and durability in terms of operational period. As a heating element, a single high resistance cable is used that converting an electric current to heat. The device of such a system allows you to pour a concrete screed over it, which subsequently works as a heat pillow.
  • Heating plates . Tile elements can be both convection and infrared principle of operation, but the efficiency of both is almost the same as the pricing policy. The main advantage of such products is the simplicity of installation, as the plates are available in convenient rolls, which just unwind enough, fasten on a basis and connect to the network.
  • Film . Electric heating element in the form of a thin film is very popular when installing wooden floors. Advantages: Thin, practically weightless design that does not cause problems when installing, solid efficiency, long service life. But, unfortunately, put on the film a concrete screed can not - it will break the work of the heating plates.
  • Stern type mats . Perfect material if there was a question "How to make an electric warm floor under the tile?" The rod structures of heating are withstanding heavy loads and at the same time racks for corrosion, respectively, will serve for many years. Even with damage or failure of one rod, the remaining elements of the system continue to function properly.

Under the tile it is better to lay an electric warming cable, heating plates or mats, but not a film that will simply endure the weight of a concrete screed.

Phased mounting of electric warm floor

The material is defined and purchased, consumables and building mixtures are also purchased, together with the necessary tool. It is time to find out how the correct installation of electric stove under the tile is carried out.

Drawing up the electrical circuit

No electrical installation is performed without prior preparation of the circuit on which:

  • Connection point.
  • The number and type of heating elements.
  • Power cable cross section.
  • Switching elements.
  • Protection elements.

Before creating a scheme, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the generally accepted rules for the installation of electrical warm floors:

  • Throughout the area of ​​the room, heating elements should not be at a distance of less than 10 cm from the walls.
  • It is necessary to know in advance where the furniture will be placed, which will prevent the heat transfer, which can lead to overheating of the conductor.
  • Plates or cable can be stacked diagonally. This will help reduce the amount of material consumed and focusing only in those areas where heated, bypassing the "dead" zones.

Now the scheme should be transferred to paper. Professional electrical companies are designing a home network using special programs on a computer, but for self-laying warm floor, just a sketch.

Calculation of the required amount of material

When calculating from the general value, it is necessary to take the places where furniture will be standing after installation. But how to determine the power of a warm floor in the bathroom under the tile and the amount of heating element? To do this, take advantage of generally accepted values ​​and formulas.

The average power of electric floor per 1 m² is 140 W. But provided that the room is highly insulation, this indicator can be reduced to 80-100 W per 1 m². Deciding with the power of the cable laid in the future, it should be multiplied to the work area. For example:

10 m² × 100 W / m² = 1000 W or 1 kW.

Select the power of one cable routing meter, it will be enough 20 W / m. And divide the total capacity in this indicator:

1000 W / 20 W / m = 50 m

This is an indication and will be a total length of heating cable for heating 10 m² area. If you take the power of one row meter more, then the general reading will be greater, the value of the material will increase accordingly.

The electric floor device requires reliable fixation, so in addition to a cable or a mat for heating, you must purchase a mounting adhesive tape with which it is very convenient to mount the heating element to any surface.

Preparation of the working surface

The preparatory stage is usually the most painstaking, requiring a lot of time and strength. To prepare the working surface, you will need:

  1. Remove the old floor covering, be it wooden board, laminate, tile or simple linoleum. Cleaning should be made to the concrete surface.
  2. If the concrete surface under the old floor is uneven, then by pouring a small amount of concrete solution (enough thickness of 2-3 cm), it must be aligned. This is a rough version, so the main goal is not aesthetics, but even smooth.
  3. Finally remove both large and small outdoor garbage.

When installing the screed must be remembered about the metal grid, otherwise, after a while, the concrete surface will go cracked and the floor will see.

Laying the thermal insulation layer

Installation of electric warm floor begins with laying thermal insulation. The high-quality thermal insulation layer is not only to increase the efficiency of the system, but also makes electricity consumption more economical, which is very important especially in the heating season.

The order of laying the heat insulating layer:

  1. Stretch the heat insulation roll over the entire area of ​​the room, following the material for 10-15 cm to enter the walls.
  2. If the material has a sticky layer on the one hand, it can be immediately glued to the concrete surface.

    Important! For high-quality gluing thermal insulation, the concrete surface must be cleaned from large and small garbage.

  3. Stasing the heat insulation follows the joint in the joint, without gaps.
  4. Shakes to stick with thermal insulating tape, covered with a foil on one side.
  5. It is once again to check the area covered with thermal insulation for the presence of gaps.

For the purpose of thermal insulation for concrete floor, it is best to use foamed polyethylene with an additional foil layer. Excessive means to spend not worth spending, so a good and economical option is the use of thermal insulation with a foil, located only on the one hand. On the other hand, for the convenience of mounting, there must be a sticky layer.

Laying metal grid

Metal, not reinforced, the grid is needed as the basis for which the heating element will be labeled. The grid, like the thermal insulation layer, is mounted on the floor into the room, but without a worst on the walls. It is not necessary to fix it through the concrete surface through the insulation, it is enough to just put it on the floor. Buying an expensive galvanized product or stainless steel either should not be - the simplest metal mesh is suitable.

Installation of shoes and installation of the temperature sensor

The first step related directly to the category of electrical installation is the stroke of the concrete surface under the laying of the temperature sensor. This is necessary before installing the heating element.

The sequence is as follows:

  1. Decide on the place where the temperature sensor will be placed. Usually it is near the nearest light switch, which is very convenient both during installation and for further operation.
  2. Make a stroke from the location of the thermostat before the place in the floor, where the temperature sensor will be.
  3. Place the sensor and cable from it in the corrugation, and accommodate the corrugation itself in the stroke.
  4. Corrected by corrugation using plastic dowel clamps, simply called "Christmas tree".
  5. At the end of the corrugation, from which the temperature sensor is placed, apply a small amount of sealant. This is done in order to secure the sensor from penetration into the concrete solution.

Using corrugations must, as it simplifies the replacement of the temperature sensor when it fails.

Installation of heating element

After the above operations on the preparation of the working surface and the installation of the heat-insulating layer with a metal mesh, it is possible to stack the heating element whether the cable of thermal and electric stoves can be styled.

Important! Before laying and fastening the heating element, check its internal resistance using the standard multimeter. Nominal values ​​are indicated in the manufacturer's passport on the product.

If there are no internal resistance values ​​in the passport, then they should be written independently after measurements. This will help to navigate the system's condition in the future.

Laying of electrical cable

If the cable or heating mats are good, then you can start laying on a warm floor.

  1. When using a cable, it must be stretched over the entire surface with uniform zigzags. The electrocabel is swept into a comfortable bay with which it can be immediately mounted on the metal grid.
  2. After the next turn, the cable is attached to the metal mesh with cable screeds every 15-20 cm.
  3. Distance between the turns: not less than 100 mm.
  4. Side coils must be located at least 150 mm from the wall.
  5. The most common way of laying is "snake", but some homemade masters prefer the "spiral" or "snail". It should be immediately clarified that the choice of drawing is available only when installing the electrical cable - the plates are placed directly and perpendicular to the same joint in the joint.

No need to drag the cable clamps too much. This can damage its insulation and quick failure, immediately after filling the design under the tile with their own hands. It is enough to simply tighten the plastic clamp, and feeling the first effort - to leave.

Laying electromatovs

Installation of heating mats is faster than cable. This is facilitated by the convenient, ready-to-use design in which the heating element is already fastened on the fine grid. Laying is made in 3 stages:

  1. Deploying the roll over the entire area of ​​the room.
  2. Fastening strips with mats with each other with the help of construction scotch.
  3. Control checking resistance and connecting the system to an industrial network.

To avoid sudden breakdowns, it is necessary to minimize the movement on plain and fixed on the concrete base mats. Incorrect movement leads to damage to the heating elements, after which the whole sections fail.

Filling tie and laying tiles

After the electrical part of the system is ready for connecting and further operation, you can start the pouring of a concrete solution on a warm floor.

Some electrical floor installation guides are advised to make the thickness of the heating cable - at least 50 mm, and for mats - at least 30 mm. But you can enjoy these readings, and with both types of heating elements to make a 50 mm screed so that then to lay a tile or tile without any problems. With the correct thermal insulation, this will be quite enough.

Tip! When installing the electric floor, it is better not to use a concrete solution, but a special adhesive mixture for tiles. Pros: it will dry faster and does not reduce the height of the room.

How to lay the adhesive screed correctly:

  1. Prepare a solution, mixing all the ingredients in the proportions specified on the package. It is necessary to closely monitor the amount of water, as it does not lay the tile on too liquid solution.
  2. Apply a small amount of solution on a warm floor with a special spatula with curly edges. After that, stretch the mixture so that it covers the heating elements. The thickness of the warm electric floor under the tile even when laying the cable will not be too noticeable in relation to the overall height of the room.
  3. Apply a layer behind the layer while the thickness of the screed is 50 mm. Carefully monitor so that air traffic jams and pockets do not appear.
  4. Try not to hook a cable with a spatula or mats under the tile - its edges are sharp enough and you can imperceptibly damage isolation.
  5. Exactly a day after laying the tiles can be pushed by seams. Include a system to test the performance is allowed not less than 3-5 days, after the final drying of the adhesive solution.

The use of a texture spatula must, otherwise, the tile or tile after several months of operation can be lagging behind. Putting the tile is best at a time, since a properly composed solution quickly dries off.

Main errors when installing electric floor under the tile

By installing electric heating floor under the tile, especially the first time, many homemade masters make a number of errors, which will further lead to the small productivity of the system or reduce its operational period. To avoid them, below shows a brief list of the most frequent flaws:

  • It is impossible to measure the cable when installing the mounted cable. Heating cable is covered with a special shielded layer, which cannot be cut. Even a slight trimming will lead to the output of the heating element.
  • You can check the electric floor for performance only with a multimeter, measuring its resistance. Turn on the cable to the network before it laying into the screed is categorically prohibited.
  • Walking along a laid cable should be with the greatest caution and only in shoes with a soft sole.
  • Installing the temperature sensor to the electric floor involves the mandatory use of corrugations. First, it cannot be removed to be replaced. Secondly, direct contact with concrete solution can lead to a breakdown of the product.
  • Even if resistance is not indicated in the passport to the cable, it should be measured before and after laying, and compare. If the readings differ significantly, the cable is definitely faulty.
  • Drawing up the scheme necessarily! It will simplify work in the future when possible malfunctions.
  • After mounting the cable is over, and the screed is filled, it is immediately forbidden to turn on the system. Too large number of air pockets and a wet solution will be caused by the failure of the heating element.

The above list of flaws will significantly increase the service life of the electric warm floor under the tile, and the home master is to save personal time and means.

Summing up

Installation of electric warm floor under the tile is simple, but a painstaking procedure requiring a certain skill of work with electrical elements and with finishing materials. Therefore, all the same minimum construction experience will be required. Also, with all the varieties of electrical operations, the main electrician rule should be remembered: without any need to never work under voltage.

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