The concrete base of the floor is currently, perhaps the most Common and in residential, and in industrial construction. It suits almost for any finish coatings or can After appropriate processing, operated and independently. Its main advantages, subject to filling technology - high strength, resistance to destruction, durability of use. It is not surprising that when conducting private construction or under repair in an apartment in the overwhelming majority of cases owners Housing stops precisely on such a field of floor arrangement.
Is it worth inviting builders' specialists, or a concrete band screed with their own hands is a completely affordable process for the average housing owner? The present publication is devoted to these questions.
Types of concrete tie
Concrete talls of the floor can have a different design, perform a few different technologies and target various purposes.
- So, they can serve solely for alignment of the floor performed before mounting the finishing coating. Powerful ties are serve Reliable The base in the premises where elevated mechanical loads are envisaged. .may they perform and functions Property The required thermobalansa, speaking, for example, powerful heat accumulators in systems " warm Paul. Schedules often cover communication systems. Maybe They are used and in order to create defined Embolon in those rooms where it is necessary.
- Concrete screeds in quantity Layers :
- They can be single-layer, that is, poured simultaneously to the entire calculated height. This is usually applied in industrial, economic or utility non-residential premises, where there are no higher requirements for the pulmonary of the floor.
- multi-layer ties are poured into several receptions . Usually the first layer serves as a gross base, and the top Creates Smooth surface for further work on flooring. This approach is applied and in cases where the total thickness of the required screed Reaches too large sizes and more expedient her Run layers.
- There are screed and clutch with the basis:
- Related ties have direct contact with the base. Of course, with such a fill technology, the maximum homogeneity of materials and their high adhesion among themselves should be ensured. Such coatings are characterized by good strength qualities in terms of holding high mechanical loads. However, the condition of the surface layer will largely depend on the level of humidity of the base. Such ties are predominantly performed on dry ceiling plates on the floors of buildings.
- In the event that the base has no sufficient waterproofing, apply a splitting layer to a split layer. Strip from waterproofing material (rubberoid, polymer Films , coating composition) becomes a barrier to penetrate moisture from below, and the screed of contact does not have a base. With such a technology, the layer of the poured solution cannot be less than 30 mm and, as a rule, needs reinforcement.
Such technology is often used in the device screed on the soil, for example, in garages, sheds, basements, on the first floors of houses without basements. Resort to it and in rooms with elevated moisture levels.
- Where enhanced floor insulation is required or there is a need for sound insulation, floating screeds are used. In this case, the concrete solution is poured RH SL OA insulation of one or another type. The screed turns into a completely independent design - a slab that is not associated with the base or with the walls of the room. The minimum fill thickness in this case is at least 50 mm, and the reinforcement of the screed becomes a prerequisite.
Humidity Such a screed is absolutely independent of the state of the basis, it is achieved good insulating and Noise absorbing Effect. Disadvantages - excessively large thickness, and therefore - the load on the overlap. Usually such ties are used only on the first floors of residential or utility buildings, especially if Pouring is carried out on the soil.
- Customs can be performed with a homogeneous solution or include defined Fillers:
- Additive with a cement-sandy solution of polystyrene foam crumb substantially increases the thermal insulation quality of the coating.
Typically, such ties require a second, reinforcing and leveling layer.
- Where there are large thickness screeds or with elevated thermal insulation qualities, clamzite is added to the concrete solution.
Ceramzitobeton It has sufficient strength, but for the flooring of some coatings will require fill yet and facial layer from a conventional solution. But the ceramic tile can be easy to lay directly on such a base.
-Good performance shows ties with micarimization Fibrovolok . This technology allows you to dramatically increase the strength of the coating to mechanical loads, to stretching, bending.
Such ties usually I do not give T T. The calves are less defeated by shrinkage when frozen, they have less dust formation. They are great for floating floors.
- A concrete tie of the floor can be performed by classic, "wet" technology, or According to Lusukha. Semi-dry screed - it's relatively new, and not all yet ready Take it in practice. In addition, it requires special professionalism in the preparation of the mortar mixture, calculated, seal and resurrecting the solution. Most home builders prefer to apply a proven "wet" technology, which Will go We are in the article in the future. [WT_GEOTARGETING TYPE = »Textinarticle» District_Show = »Central Federal District»] However, if you are limited in time, consider the option with the invitation of specialists in laying a semi-dry screed. When choosing a contractor, pay attention to the technology used - the presence of a mechanized composition of the composition will ensure purity in the apartment. For example, the EUROSTRU 21 of the 21st Century is engaged in a semi-drying screed on the newest technology (company www.prestigehouse.ru website). [/ WT_GEOTARGETING]
Concrete screed pouring solutions
It is quite natural that if necessary, pour a concrete screed first need to decide on the type of solution. This issue is possible some options.
According to the existing canons SNIP The minimum strength of a conventional concrete screed, regardless of the form of further her Facing should be at least M-150 (the coating withstands the force of 150 kg / cm²). If used Self-confined Flowing composition, here are the requirements yet Above - from M-200. In accordance with these requirements and should be selected.
one. «A classic "concrete solution used to fill ordinary band screed, a cement-sand mixture is considered to be 1: 3 proportions. "Recipe" This - time-tested and fully justifies itself. However, there are several nuances, without accounting which you can easily spoil the future screed :
- To prepare concrete, it is impossible to use the usual "washed" river sand, which has not passed special processing. The frozen surface will not be durable, Start Over time, crumble, crumble and crack. The fact is that the grave is smoothed from the long exposure to water outlines, Do not provide due clutch. In this regard, much better career sand, еhis graves Hechpins of the wrong shape. True, when choosing you need to watch carefully to Nem. It did not come across a large amount of clay inclusions - it will also reduce the strength of the screed.
The presence of a small amount of gravel component of the shallow fraction on the strength qualities of the screed will not affect. However, if a flat surface is required, it will be necessary to sift sand through a sieve.
- A very important condition for the strength and durability of the poured screed becomes the optimally selected amount of water. It's no secret that some novice home builders seeking ease Himself work on the fill and recreak of concrete, use excessive water, Getting half aim , easily spreading solution . These most they lay down "mini slow motion" —At the exit, the screed will not have the required qualities.
First, an overly liquid solution will definitely give a strong shrinkage when solidified. Smooth surface, in accordance with the exposed level, in this case it is not necessary to expect. And secondly, the violation of the cement-water balance will necessarily reduce the strength qualities of the frozen concrete. The surface is obtained by loose, unrelated, with increased formation of dust.
There are certainly specially calculated standards for the amount of water in concrete solution, but they usually adhere to technologists for the production of reinforced concrete structures and large mortar units. In terms of household conditions, they are more often relying on their own experience, intuition and common sense. In addition, accurately calculate the amount of water is very difficult and on that it largely depends on the moisture content of the filler. Sand may be wet, Heavy - And this is also water that will participate in the process of preparing the solution.
Ideally, the concrete solution should turn out to be dense, but rather plastic, so that when it is pouring and resurring into the thickness of the floor there is no air emptiness. You can approximately navigate the next ratio - a liter of water by five kilograms of cement-sand dry mixture.
Mix the solution for the screed manually, with the help of a shovel, it is very difficult. It is better for this to use a concrete mixer or a building mixer sufficiently high power. Initially, stirred in the desired ratio of dry components (can be with a slight moisture), and then very carefully, portion, water is added.
An important condition for the quality of the future concrete screed is water purity. It is recruited using technical water with fat, oils, petroleum residues and T.P. . Also cannot be used for carrying water to the place of kneading concrete dirty grinding Capacity .
2. Modern assortment NT Art Raligative materials presented on sale allows you to significantly simplify the process of filling the screed. For these purposes, ready-made dry building mixes can be applied.
Compared to the use of the usual cement-sand mixture, this technology has whole line Advantages:
- According to the strength and other operating indicators, the screeds made of finished mixtures are not inferior to the usual concrete, and even exceed it in a number of parameters.
- For the preparation of the solution you do not need a powerful technique or heavy Manual work is enough a mixer or even a powerful electric drill (perforator) with an appropriate nozzle.
- Does not exist in the principle of problems with the dosage of components - everything is already provided by the manufacturer, and the master remains only clearly Follow the instructions for preparing the solution.
- Many solutions prepared from such mixtures are much easier, which reduces the load on the overlap, reduces the cost of transportation and facilitates climb Materials for floors.
- It is possible to select the desired composition for specific operating conditions. So, there are solutions for coarse or aligning screeds, for the system " warm Paul "and for premises with high humidity. Added special plasticizers or Microfiber Not only increase the strength characteristics of the coating, but also reduce the deadlines for the full pouring of the screed, reducing the overall duration of construction work.
- What is very important for beginners - work with such compositions is simple and does not require particularly high skills. The main thing is to follow the recommendations on the fill technology, which are necessarily attached to any batch of material.
All this will be true only if a high-quality dry mixture is purchased. Alas, but in the building materials market in this segment there are a lot of fakes or base mixtures. It is best to choose compounds from authoritative manufacturers, Before Checking the certificate to not run into counterfeit. It is also important to test the flow of material - it is limited, and the overdue mixture can significantly lose its qualities.
The only drawback of this approach to the pouring screed is on HERE It may turn out slightly higher than with a self-making of the solution. Well, for amenities and quality you need to pay.
Prices for various types of screeds and bulk floors
Screeds and bulk floors
Preparation of the surface to the pouring concrete Screws
The surface under the fill screed is prepared differently , based Specific conditions:
- If the floor is laid on the ground, for example, in a private house without a soda or basement, then work is carried out in next sequence :
- The soil is selected to a depth of 500 mm.
- It is not satisfied with a sand pillow, 100 mm thick, thoroughly tram. Over HERE In the same way, the gravel layer is poured.
- The coarse fill is made with concrete with the addition of ceramisit to height 150 —200 mm –For insulation of the floor surface.
- After finding the foundation, it is necessarily Waterproof - rubberoid or dense polyethylene Film to exclude hit ground moisture from below. Waterproofing material must fail on the walls on the walls Height , slightly more than the height of the planned screed. If necessary, you can fall asleep on top yet One layer of insulation, and then pour a reinforced finish tie.
- In the apartments first need to remove the old tie. This is done for several reasons:
- First, the old screed does not guarantee integrity, as it can be squeezed, crack, and these deformations are transferred to the newly fill layer.
- Secondly, you should not forget about the maximum permissible loads on the ceiling plates. So, in serial high-rise buildings of the old building, the allowable load of about 400 kg per square meter is static and 150 kg - dynamic. And the West of one square meter of a concrete screed, 50 mm thick approaches 100 kg. Therefore, all works associated with the thickening screed have to Coordinate in project organizations. And far from the fact that such permission will be obtained.
- Thirdly, the height of the forces in apartments is usually not so significant so that it is possible to afford to raise the floor level.
The old screed is dismantled by a perforator, but very careful to prevent destruction or damage to the slab of the overlap. The remnants of the slot concrete are taken out, and then careful cleaning and Dusting Surfaces.
Next, the foundation is inspecting and, if necessary, carry out repair work:
- If an associated screed is planned, then it is necessary to carefully clean the available recesses, partition cracks or cracks on the width less than 5. Mm so that the concrete solution can freely penetrate the concrete solution when pouring.
- If the screed is floating or on a divided layer, then all flaws need to be repaired immediately. It is impossible to leave voids under the waterproofing layer - condensate can accumulate there, and these parts of high humidity can be accumulated, they will probably become a "problem place".
Separation of defects are made by repair makeup, epoxy putty or conventional concrete solution. In the case of large defects, you can sometimes apply the mounting foam.
The angles between the walls and the floor are especially checked and repaired - water from a concrete solution when pouring a screed can penetrate in depth Overlapping or even give a leak to neighbors from below.
- Then, in any case, the surface of the overlap should be treated with penetrating primer. Such a measure I. Remove Additionally, the surface of the plate, and improve her adhesion to the fillive Concrete . In addition, the overlapping will not actively absorb moisture from the solution. It is extremely important. Lack of water in a layer of raw concrete adjacent to the base, will lead to the incomplete maturation of the cement stone, the screed will be peeling or collapsed with even not The most significant loads.
Soil spill According to Top strips and evenly distribute roller. In hard-to-reach places, for example, in the corners, it is better to use a brush.
- The elastic damper tape is sized around the perimeter of the walls. It will be a compensator of the concrete screed extensions, which will prevent her deformation or cracking. In addition, the screed under no circumstances should be contacted with vertical structures, be it walls, partitions or columns.
- If the screed is on the divided layer, then at first the entire surface of the overlap is closed with dense polyethylene Film , thickness of at least 0.2 mm. The bands are stacked by a cleaner, not less than 100 mm. The joints are necessarily sampled by waterproof construction scotch. Need to try very carefully to put Film in the corners to Not formed strong jams and folds - there may be air "pockets". Kray Films on the walls should be higher planned Screeds on 5 ÷ 10 mm - they are then easy to trim.
After Polyethylene is not in a black, the damper tape is glued - as well as mentioned above.
Lighthouse and reinforcement system
To achieve horizontal screed and her The required height, it is necessary to create a system of beacons for which a militating concrete solution will be carried out.
Determination of zero level
Very well, if there is a laser level in the farm, or it is possible to take it from familiar. Work in this case is greatly simplified - to beat off the horizontal strips on the walls and control the level of sending the guides will be much easier.
If there is no such possibility, it is not worse than you can set beacons with the help of a water and conventional construction level.
Water level is two cylindrical transparent vessels with inflicted the same scale United Long elastic thin hose. According to the physical law of the reporting vessels, the fluid level in them is always at one height of the horizon. Thus, making one mark on defined level, you can move with high accuracy her On other surfaces within the length of the flexible hose.
Start marking from determining the zero level of the future screed. For this, first of all, you need to carry out a basic horizontal line. This is done as follows:
- Visually determined the estimated highest angle of the room. On the wall in this corner there is a mark on an arbitrary height. Better, of course, make her So that it is convenient to work as convenient as possible, for example, a half meter from the floor.
- Using a water level, this mark is transferred to all walls of the room. The distance between the risks should allow to connect their line using the existing ruler (you can use a long construction level or net rule).
- Conducted The line must pass throughout the perimeter of the room and come together at one point. —It will talk about the correctness of the industrial.
- PROM MERS OV inflicted base line to the floor surface. Points of Promers usually - every 0, 5 M. .Be sure to ensure that the measurement is carried out strictly vertically. The obtained values must be recorded (on a piece of paper or even on a pencil wall).
The point of the dimmer, which will give the minimum height of this distance, will correspond to the highest portion of the base.
- From the resulting value at the highest point, the thickness of the future screed (minimum - 30 mm) is taken away. For example, the minimum height is 1420 mm. We take the thickness of the screed (30 mm) and we get 1390 mm. This is the distance from inflicted reference line to zero level.
- Now it will be easy to carry out the entire line of the zero level around the perimeter of the room - for this need to Measure the value from the basic down, mark the points and connect their direct. To simplify work, you can make a rail - template and quickly transfer the mark from the baseline. After their connection, the main zero line line will be obtained.
- In construction practice, it is rare, but still happens when the floor level is somewhat higher than at the walls. This must be checked by pulling the cord along the zero level between the opposite walls and measuring the height from it to the floor. Such a check should be carried out in several places. In the case when It will be revealed that in the center there is an elevation, it will be necessary to shift the zero level up to ensure the minimum allowable screed thickness over the entire area of the room.
Marking under the beacon system
The markup of the beacons and the directions should be appropriate immediately after chopping the zero level, guided by the following principles:
- The orientation of the guides must be consistent with the intended direction of the most convenient fill of the screed. This is usually done along the room, from the far wall to the exit.
- It happens that in view of the complexity of the room configuration, it will be necessary to change the direction of the fill on defined plot. It should also immediately be taken into account when marking a beacon lines.
- The distance between the wall and the nearest parallel guide is usually maintained by no more than 250 –300 mm. If you leave it big, then a poorly aligned site or even fail, which will require additional intervention subsequently may be formed along the wall.
- Distances between adjacent guides are particularly not Regulated . The main thing is that the rule-mounted rule that is set to them performed on both sides by about 200 mm. It does not follow too much to carry guides - in the center between them after the shrinkage of the frozen concrete may appear quite large gaps.
- Direction lines distributing the width of the room usually at the same distance one from another.
How lighthouses and zero guides are exhibited Level
Previously, various infringement materials were used as a guide for a guide system, such as wooden bars or unnecessary pipes. Today, metal profiles are used for these purposes.
- So, galvanized P-shaped profiles from plasterboard systems show themselves very well. They are resistant to deflection and create reliable "Rail" to work as a rule.
- Plastering profiles are very popular, although they are not deprived of some drawbacks. They have a rib Stiffness , but In long sites, when working as a rule, they can still be fed. In addition, when used by their use, the number of support points must be increased.
- In some cases, you can at all Do without using profiles.
Methods of installation of the beacon a lot, and it is impossible to consider everything. Let us dwell on some of them.
- One of their most accurate and simple - with the use of self-use.
- at the far end of the room at a distance of 250 –300 mm from the angle between the opposite walls is stretched strictly by zero level of a durable cord (for example, a fishing line or a thick caprochy thread). It is important to pull it to the maximum so that there is no savings in the center.
- in the intersection of the stretched cord line with the line close to the wall, Guide в The floor is extended The hole where the plastic dowel is clogged and the self-tapping screw is screwed. Via Screwdrivers It is screwed in such a way that the upper edge of his cap is exactly coincided with the zero level.
- This operation is repeated in the opposite, close to the output, side of the room.
- two self-pressing defining line of the guide, join the tightly stretched cord, so that it passes at the top their hats.
- on this segment are placed and drill holes under Dowels , distributing them evenly so that the interval in 350 ÷ 400 mm was withstanding between them.
- Self-tapping screws in Dowels Before the coincidence of their hat with a strained cord. Be sure to check with the help of a construction level - if necessary, you can make the required adjustments.
- In the same way, the line of self-tapping screws is performed on the opposite guide, and then - and on the intermediate. At the same time, the check should be carried out in all directions - longitudinal, transverse and diagonally.
- After all the lines are reached the same zero level, the stretched cords are removed. Prepare a thick concrete solution. It is laid out by small slides along the line of screwed screws. Then the top profile is put on top and pressed into the solution. The transverse shelf of the profile must continue to the head of the self-press. It is important that the profile " Sel »Evenly on both sides, without distortion.
— After The solution will grab I. reliable Fixes profiles in the prescribed position, you can move to the pouring of the screed.
With plastecred The profiles are somewhat more complicated - they are harder to fix on the heads of the screws. To this end, special Fasteners Elements - " Ushastiki »Which are dressed on the self-tapping screws, and their petals are crimped side shelves of the profile.
Video: Introducing beacons with the help of screws and fasteners- " Ushastikov »
Yet One subtlety - plaster profiles have yet and our own height, and it is also necessary to take into account when setting the screws in zero level.
In addition, the solution for fixation will be needed significantly more - flesh Before resorting to the calculation of even a solid shaft, in which the profile is configured with the emphasis in the hats of the screws.
- Some masters are accustomed to and do without metal profiles at all.
— Exhibited chassis beaches they Bind into thin wire, thus creating a kind of reinforcing frame. Then the solution is laid over the entire line, so that the resulting shaft is slightly higher than the zero level.
- When the solution Start Classm, form a guide plane. Using the rule, the top edge of this shaft is compared and loaded up to the hats of the screws.
- After the frozen, there will be excellent guides, for which it is quite possible to work as a rule, and then they will enter the structure of the flooded screed.
- If the screed is performed on the onset waterproofing, the method of self-samples becomes inapplicable - disrupt hermeticity Films It is impossible, I. Moreover , must not be hard Clutch new screed with base. In this case have to Most more, laying out the slides of the solution and accurately inserting the guides to zero levels along the stretched cords.
To speed up the readiness of the beacon system often, instead of a conventional solution, tile glue is used - the term of its frozen is much smaller. But the gypsum compositions are not allowed. First, they practically do not give shrinkage, unlike cement. Secondly, gypsum compositions are completely different indicators of water absorption, adhesion, strength, plasticity and T.P. . You can argue with one hundred percent confidence that in the location of the lighthouses on the tie T T. Calm.
Nuances reinforcement screed
Of course, this measure is useful, especially when tie a large thickness. It is used for this, most often, metal mesh made of steel galvanized wire with cells from 50 to 100 mm - her You can purchase ready-made in stores. Only here her accommodation very many allow Serious Error.
If you look at numerous photos on the Internet, you can see the grid laid directly onto the slab or on the waterproofing layer. In the utility of such reinforcement there are a lot of doubts. Ideally, that the reinforcement belt played its role, it should be accommodated in the thicker of the fillive solution, about In the middle of the height of the screed.
To do this, you can purchase special polymer coasters. However, not T T. Ruda make backups from the wire or even lift the mesh on the lining from pieces of broken tiles or fragments of an old concrete screed. Wooden lining to use in no case.
Obviously, it is determined by reinforcing Grid It is necessary to place the guides. Most often installation of the system of beacons and reinforcement conducted In parallel, and the grid can also be fixed on Those slings cement In which metal profiles are wondering.
Video: yet Some System Installation Tips Mayakov
Oddly enough, but the process of filling the screed looks in a series of all technological operations, probably the most simple. If all preparatory work is done correctly, then this stage of complexity will not submit.
- For normal fill and frozen the screed is optimal, the temperature is from 15 to 25 degrees. Work is allowed at lower temperatures (but not lower than +5), but the ripening period of concrete will increase significantly. In too hot weather, it is also better to refrain from the pouring - = the upper layer can quickly dry and go cracks. He does not like screed and drafts, although completely accessing fresh air can not be overlapped.
- Best of all, of course work together - one is engaged in the preparation of a concrete solution, and the second is directly filling and aligning the screed. The technology of kneading the solution was already described above.
- Work lead from a long corner of the room, gradually moving to the exit. It is necessary to try to fulfill the fill for one working day - so the screed will be the most homogeneous and durable. If for some reason it is impossible, then the surface of the floor is divided in advance to the plots (they are called fill cards) with the installation of jumpers between them.
- The finished solution in excessive amounts lay out between the guides, so that its layer is 15 -, 20 mm above zero level. The initial distribution is carried out using a trowel or shovels. Must be monitored so as not to remain unfilled seats - It often happens under the guides, under the rods Armatures or in the corners. Maximum sealing of a concrete solution should be achieved, the exit of the air bubbles from it. To do this, you can spend " Shtyking » —The solution is pushed with a shovel or trusteen.
- Further, on the on the Boiding Installed Rule . The solution and transverse zigzag movements are smoothed to the level of the guides, so that it turns out a smooth smooth surface.
If the sand was not sieved and in Nem. Large fragments (pebbles or shells) remained, then they may arise defined difficulties - these inclusions can leave the furrows and have to Many torture, removing them and Aligning Orthodox to remove the surface to the perfect state.
Concrete solution is added as needed, so that the work went continuously. Excess the solution at the end of the pouring of the room is neatly removed.
Video: a visual example of fill screed Mayakov
After Fill will be completed, it is necessary Provide measures eliminating random entrance to the premises of people or pets during the first 5 –7 days. To process with S. Watching sheltered Effectively, the surface is needed daily (starting from the second day) to wet water, supporting her in a wet state. With a strong heat, it makes sense after the initial setting to hide her Film In order to avoid drying.
If a conventional sandy cement solution was used, then the readiness of the screed with operational Loads You can speak no earlier than for 3 weeks. When using dry building mixtures, time can be different - they are necessarily indicated in the attached instruction.
After screed ready her Check for evenness and on quality Surfaces. To do this, install Rule on stovered Guides and measure the resulting clearance in the center. From the shrinkage of concrete is not going anywhere, and if the gap does not exceed 1 –2 mm, it will be within the normal range.
Often Px Art Jasch poured a thin layer self-leveling composition to make the surface perfectly smooth. However, this is the topic for separate consideration.
Not all apartments and houses boast of surfaces without the slightest defects, so during the overhaul of the owners to make maximum efforts to eliminate them. The best option to create a perfectly smooth base under the finish finish is a floor screed. The operation cannot be called elementary, it is quite demanding to the master, but it is quite perfect on small areas. To reduce the cost of repair, many owners of housing prefer all his stages to do their own hands. Floor screed is independently possible, but for any work it is necessary to knowledge of technology, compliance with the sequence of actions and accuracy. Otherwise, the final result may not refuse, but to upset the owners.
Why do you need a screed?
Alignment of the base is not the only task of this item. Such a thin concrete layer between overlap and floor finish coated helps:
- Adjust the floor: or give him evenness, or create the necessary slope;
- Hide communications, strengthen not too reliable base;
- evenly distribute the load from the decorative coating;
- provide additional hydro, sound and thermal insulation;
- make practical built-in warm floors;
- slightly lift the level of base.
Some types of floor coverings are extremely demanding to the foundation plane. An uneven surface will definitely be the reason for the appearance of cracks in them. Movement by such a floor may be accompanied by a creak, and this "wonderful" sound for all without exception causes discomfort.
Types of potential work
If the hosts are scheduled for the floor screed on their own, then you first need to learn about the types of such a coating. They differ in the method of manufacture, the number of layers, the type of connection with the base.
Methods of manufacture
All varieties have quite large differences.
This screed is a traditional, classic sandy cement mixture. It can be done independently. Or purchase a ready-made dry composition. The base can be different: both cement and plaster. The surface of the floor is poured in the usual way, then align on the mounted beacons. If the screed is used with sand cement, then the surface is reinforced. In this case, for a set of strength layer, 28 days are needed, this is the main drawback of the "wet case".
To the right methods, the other type is the other type - self-leveling mixtures. Their feature is the application of the minimum thickness layer: from 0.5 to 20 mm. Technology, compared with the classic, is as simple as possible. At first, the strips are poured into the surface, and after its independent distribution, bubbles are removed by passing along the bulk floor with a needle roller.
This type of screed is made without the use of solutions. It is also called the national team. These are sheets of large sizes, their thickness is 15-20 mm. They are laid on the prepared grounds. Used materials - plywood, gypsum-fiber or chipboard. To ensure the thermal insulation of the room, they are put on the clamping intake. Sheer it can be rather thick.
This technology is chosen for wooden bases, if the floors of the apartments have a very large height difference, when the overlaps of the old building are not reliable enough. In the most difficult cases, slabs from chipboard or plywood are placed and attached to lagows. The advantages of the dry screed are simplicity, speed, ease of materials, the complete absence in the "cement dirt" room.
This is a relatively new technology. The peculiarity of such a screed is the minimum amount of water in the solution: it is added smoothly so much to moisturize the cement. Thanks to this approach, it is possible to avoid a long break in the work, which is required to froze the liquid concrete. The next day, it is already possible to walk without feet. The finish coating is allowed to lay in a week. The method is somewhat more complicated than the traditional option.
In these solutions, plasticizers are added, which give the thick mixture missing mobility. Another, almost mandatory, component - basalt or polypropylene fibrovocol, replacing the replacement of reinforcement, often present in the wet tie. This material is easy, but significantly improves wear resistance, floor strength.
Number of layers
In this classification, only two ways.
One layer is the easiest option. In some buildings, the scale itself is converted into the finish coating. We are talking about garages, workshops, about other non-residential premises. In this case, the solution is poured immediately to the required thickness.
Often one layer prefers two. The first layer lines the surface, or, on the contrary, creates the necessary slopes. For it, the usual sandy cement mortar is used. This concrete reservoir is called a black tie, which can already be styling a porcelain stoneware or tile.
The name of the second layer is the pure screed. Her destination is to give the surface of the ideal smoothness. Such a floor requires carpet, laminate, parquet, etc. For finishing floors of floors without a slope, another option is used more often - a professional material - self-leveling mixture. With it, it is easiest to get the surface without a single defect.
Connection with the base
Screed - technology used for any type of base. It is successfully used on the ground, wood, concrete. For each material requires its own type of connection. The main types are two.
This layer is firmly associated with "solid". The easiest example is a concrete screed and similar overlaps. The homogeneity of materials ensures optimal clutch, and therefore the maximum strength.
Such a method is used when heat and / or sound insulation is necessary. In this case, on the base, the waterproofing layer first is placed, necessarily with the occasion of the material on the walls, then any insulation.
Technology screed: work order
If the wet or semi-dry floor screed is scheduled, then the concrete solution will be needed anyway, and such work will consist of several stages.
- Pre-prepared the base. The surface is cleaned, carefully studied it, all major defects eliminate. This will make it possible to minimize costs.
- All garbage and dust are removed, then the surface is ground, it is better to apply several layers. If a floating method is chosen, the waterproofing film is filling, insulation.
- Install guide lighthouses (horizontally either under the necessary slope). Then lay the wire reinforcing grid.
- The solution is prepared, poured the screed, roll over and closed with a film. Waiting for almost a month if you use wet technology.
This is only a scheme that will have to adhere to, but quite a lot of different nuances in this "concrete" work. There are several items with which you need to get acquainted.
Materials required for screed
The base is a solution. You can use a simple (traditional) cement-sand mix, however, the addition of plasticizers will facilitate further work, as well as reduce the timing of concrete maturation. For the solution take cement M400 or M500. Concrete must be M150 or M200.
For apartments, these brands will be enough, however, other compositions can also be used, with a greater fraction of cement. Yes, the screed will turn out more durable, but minus them is that the shrinkage will be larger, and the likelihood of cracking during the drying period will increase.
Proportions, volume and kneading
To obtain a cement-sand mix of the brand of concrete M150, take 3 parts of cement (M400, M500) and 1 sand. The amount of water is 480-550 ml per 1 kg of cement. It is allowed to add another solid ingredient - gravel (crushed stone) shallow or medium fraction.
Plasticizers use plasticity for high plasticity. The easiest option is PVA glue. Its fraction in the solution should not exceed 1%. Fiberglass is another component that improves the quality of the screed. It prevents the formation of cracks during the shy of the screed or the foundation of the "freshly built" house.
First, all dry components are stirred, getting a homogeneous mixture. Then the water is gradually added, constantly stirring the solution. The exact volume of fluid depends on the humidity of gravel and sand. Ideal for the screed that concrete that will solely crawl from the shovel.
To determine the approximate volume of the solution, it is enough to know the area of the room and the thickness of the concrete screed. The last value is translated into meters, then both quantities are prolonged. The result is the volume of concrete in cubic meters. Using the following table, determine how much cement will need to buy.
It indicates the consumption of cement for a solution without gravel or rubble. Sand is better to take a construction, and not river. The difference of materials in faces: sharp in the first case, smoothed by water in the second. Career sand concrete wins the river competitor for strength competition.
What should be done after the fill?
Wait - the answer is incorrect. So that concrete is high-quality, you need to observe the temperature regime and maintain moisture. The optimal temperature is + 17 °. In order for moisture not evaporated too quickly, the surface is closed with a thick polyethylene film. In hot sunny weather, it is recommended to launch windows. At critical temperature (+ 25 ° or above), the concrete is regularly wetted. "Moisturizing care" requires the first 2-3 weeks.
Floor screed alone
It will be about the traditional screed with a "wet" solution. This operation is not too complicated, but it implies difficult physical labor. To get an idea that the work is to work for work, it is better to learn in advance in detail what and how to do.
Such a tie is made on reinforced concrete floors, on the ground, heat and sound insulation. On wooden bases, this technology does not use sense: it is more suitable for a relatively clean, light dry screed, and not a solution.
Soil - Heavy Case
The hardest work will have to those who prepare the base on the ground. In this case, first choose the soil. The depth of such a mini-pita is 500 mm. But the bottom is placed geotextile, draining materials - sand, gravel or crushed stone on it. They are laid out (first shed) and the trambet layers.
Thermal insulation materials are placed on top: ceramzite, ceramzite concrete or polystyrene foam. The insulation is then covered with a dense polyethylene film, its thickness is 200 microns. Such a fat "cake" guarantees strength, makes it possible to prevent moisturizing, freezing. If the level of groundwater is high, it will additionally need to arrange a quality drainage system.
Reinforced concrete base
This is the best surface of the screed surface. To prepare the basis, all irregularities are knocked down, the surface is cleaned, cracks and large depressions. The next stage is the processing of primer, more often recommended to use reliable concrete contact. However, this work some masters are postponed, as you first need to determine the zero level and the exhibition of beacons. Otherwise, the primer layer may be damaged.
This concrete screed has no binding to the base. The insulating layer consists of insulation and waterproofing material. All over the perimeter of the room to pour the solution to the damper tape, which will compensate for the shrinkage and temperature deformations of concrete.
The ideal is a screed, located on the same level in all rooms. The horizon is easiest to be placed using a laser level. First, they are looking for the highest point of the base, then the height of the screed will be measured from it. This value depends on its variety:
- at least 30 mm for cement-sand mix;
- 40 mm - for floating design;
- 50 mm - for solid, associated.
For the bathroom, toilet or bathroom, the height may differ by 10-20 mm. If the screed is done on the same level with other rooms, then they are separated from the residential premises. When the warm floor system is scheduled, the layer is planned by 15 mm thicker of pipe diameter.
First make careful preliminary marking. Laser level for such operations is the best choice. It can be applied at any distance from the floor, however, it is believed that it is most convenient to leave a meter distance. The main thing is to locate the horizon correctly. This line is applied to the walls with a pencil, a marker or chalk.
The next step is to measure the line to the floor surface in all rooms. The zero level is fixed where the distance is minimal. It is from this point that the height is measured, equal to the thickness of the screed. When transferring marks to the walls, it is recommended to use a painting fold. In case of multilayer coatings, thus can accurately determine the thickness of each of the layers.
Installation of Mayakkov
To fix the draft layer, different ways are used evenly throughout the area. Beacons become:
- Perflectors fixed by self-drawers with dowels;
- bands or small mortar stamps;
- "Professionals" - reference beacons;
- Metal profiles for GKL.
Reperas - adjustable stands for lighthouses. However, this option is not too attractive, as the lighthouses are cleaned, and the repurries are left closed in concrete. You can even use wooden slats, but they must be perfectly smooth. Planks exhibit in full accordance with the zero level.
The distance between the beacons depends on the room area and the length of the rules. It is usually 300-500 mm less than the tool. Lighthouses are exhibiting parallel to the long walls of the room. The distance from the extreme elements to the walls is about 200 mm. The remaining space is divided into the same parts so that they are less than the length of the rule.
There is no way that one could definitely call the easiest. Often use profile and mortar.
- First, the base is drawn. On these lines, the slides of a thick solution are laid out, similar to the composition of what will be used for a screed. However, he must keep the form well.
- The accurate step of "heap" (about 500 mm) them depends only on the width (length) of the room. Height - above zero mark. The profile is placed on the brand, then the elements are pressed. With the help of laser level, the lines are achieved.
The main work of the floor by the name "Floor screed independently" begin after 1-2 days. This time is quite enough to grasp the beacon.
After drying, the primer is moving to further stages. In homes with a reliable concrete basis, as a rule, reinforcement is not used if the screed is made solid. In other cases, such an increase is quite justified. It is necessary when:
- The building is built quite recently;
- The screed is designed for a warm floor system;
- It is suitable for a floating construction, which is characterized by a smaller bearing capacity;
- Make a fill of concrete on a soil, which is subjected to various "tests" (example - frosty trimming);
If a screed is planned with a thickness of more than 50 mm, then in this case reinforcement is also required: it will protect the design from cracking.
There are several options.
- In the old man. For the reinforcement of concrete by tradition, a steel grid is used. The cross section of it is from 3.5 to 4 mm. If the screed is thick, then this parameter is better to increase. Cell dimensions - 60-100 mm. The grid associated with wire or plastic clamps is labeled between the beacons for small bugs of cement. Another way to provide the required distance between the grid and the base is the purchase of special fixtures.
- Use new materials. There is an alternative version that does not require "comes" with metal. These are grids made of fibers associated with polymers. They are called composite. They are basaltoplastic, fiberglass, carbon fiberglass. The main advantages of such mestes: high specific strength, low thermal conductivity, the same as in concrete, coefficient of temperature expansion.
Knit and assemble both reinforcing grids are absolutely the same. Minus the latter is the worst bending work, so when installing and during operation, with a screed, it is randomly breaking it much easier.
This method is adding to a solution of fibrovolok. Such a frame of thin fibers is not visible, but the chaotic arrangement is the reason that concrete becomes invulnerable in all planes. Adding microfolocone increases the brand of concrete, ensures strength, strokeiness, complete absence of cracks that can be formed during shrinkage. Fiber produce from several materials.
- Steel wire. Its diameter is from 0.2 to 1.2 mm, the length of the fibers is 25-60 mm. For the screeds, it is usually not used.
- Zirconium glass. This material for the manufacture of monoliths is also not usually bought, the reason is their fairly high price.
- Basalt fibers. Such reinforcement increases the strength of concrete by 4-5 times. The difference of this microfiber is a partial dissolution in the solution, which, however, guarantees greater strength.
- Polypropylene is the most popular appearance, since this microfiber is similar to a basalt variety, however, its price is significantly lower. It does not change its properties throughout the service life of the coating.
To the solution, polypropylene fiber can be added in any way: to pre-pump in water or first mix with sand, then add cement and water.
Laying of solution
Floor screed independently - work that is completed by this stage. To improve the grip, before the filling of the solution, it is necessary to predict the surface or moisten it with water. The mixture is prepared by observing the proportion. According to the consistency, it should be similar to a thick sour cream, which does not spread alone.
Fill usually start from a plot (angle), which is located furthest from the door. The mixture is laying out between the beacons, first it is distributed by a trowel, then carefully align the rule, making zigzag movements. The tool surface must be perfectly smooth.
After moving the entire surface, the tie of the floor is left alone for a day. The next day, beacons are removed, and the remaining grooves are filled with mortar. They are moving with a trowel or grout.
Floor screed independently - the operation is subject to any home master. Despite the requirements for them, all stages of work can be relatively easy and quickly made with their own hands.
If you have any questions, it is better to first see how others do the screed. For example, it is very praised by this video:
Today, the requirements for finishing work is much higher than a couple of decades ago. Almost all floor coverings require a base if not perfectly smooth, then with a very small drop - no more than a few millimeters. Therefore, almost every repair means alignment of the floor, but do it with a screed. The process is long-term, requiring considerable financial investments. Everything will cost cheaper if you make most of the work yourself. Even if there is no skills, the screed of the floor with their own hands is not such a difficult thing. Compliance with technology is the key to success.
What is a screed and its types (short)
The screed is an intermediate layer between the base (overlap) and the finishing materials of the floor. You can divide them into two groups - leveling and aligning-thermal insulation. Screed with thermal insulation function is used on the first floor, above the basement or unheated room. It is done under the warm floor - to reduce the cost of heating.
There are two technologies of the tie device:
- Monolithic. For laying a monolithic screed use various brands of concrete. Both heavy (CPS, with rubble) and lightweight (foam concrete, with polystyrene, ceramzite concrete and with other light fillers). May be liquid and semihow - depends on the amount of water in solution.
- Team screed. This is when there are a lot of layers, they can be from different materials. This includes dry ties, on lags, with insulation, soundproofing.
According to the method of compounds with the base there are two types:
- Normal. This if the solution is poured over the slab overlap, for example. What is the drawback? The fact that if the "news" is started, the floor will crack along with the base.
- Floating. When the base and screed are separated by an intermediate layer. For example, if a plastic film is laid under a layer of concrete, thermal insulation (polystyrene foam plates), waterproofing or any other separator, which divides the material of the screed and base.
All requirements and norms are spelled out in regulatory acts. SNiP 3.03.01-87 "Bearing and enclosing structures", SNiP 2.03.13-88 "Floors", SNiP 3.04.01-87 "Insulating and finishing coatings". To accurately navigate what and how to do, schedule these norms. Then the screed of the floor with their own hands or the control of the work of the brigade will not be a problem.
How to choose a type of screed and what layers need
Make a tie of sex with your own hands is not such a problem. The problem is to choose type, not mistaken with layers, mass, correctly pick up materials and calculate their quantity. And the best screed for each case is your own. It is one thing - repairs in the new building, another - overhaul in a residential foundation. In addition, the requirements and idea about the "best" each of their own. But there are technical moments that determine the boundaries of your desires. These moments must be monitored.
When creating overlapping and foundation, a certain load is laid, which can be removed overlap. It must be viewed in the project or clarify the operating organization (usually from the chief engineer). The average estimated load is 300-400 kg / m², but maybe more, and less.
If the overlap is wooden, it will not stand it for a larger load. A specific value depends on the cross section of the lag and the steps of their installation. But on wooden floors, most often, make a dry tie of lags. The gaps between the lags are filled with heat and soundproofing material, and the floor board or sheet materials are placed on top. To improve sound insulation, when assembling the screed uses sounding gaskets.
If the load capacity of the overlap allows you to make a screed from cement-chipboard (CSP), with a gravel filler or without. But on top of concrete with gravel, a leveling layer is needed. Although it is almost always needed. Floor screed rarely comes out perfectly smooth, it is necessary to pour over the level of the level.
Do not want to load the design too much? Use lightweight concrete with light filler. Anyone you like more. We like wooden floors - do not make a wet tie, put the lags, warp the floor from the board. All that fits into the limits of load capacity, can be made.
In residential premises from 2 floors and above waterproofing is not needed. This layer is required on the first floor if there is no basement in the house, as well as in all "wet" zones on any floor. These include shower, toilet, bathroom, kitchen, balcony and loggia. Sometimes, for reliability, can capture the corridor. Floor screed with your own hands in the bathroom or toilet is a good experience to start.
Waterproofing materials are rolled, there are liquid compositions - mastic, rubber paints, compositions based on copolymers. In the basements or on the first floors of houses without basement, the waterproofing layer is laid under the tie. In wet premises - under and over a screed, under the floor covering (regardless of the floor). Most often, waterproofing is put in two layers - to increase the level of reliability. You can combine different materials, for example, rolled + mastic.
The inhabitants of the apartments know well as bad sound insulation prevents living. Especially in the presence of violent or inadequate neighbors. Moreover, the noise from above interferes at no less than on the side. Sometimes even more. In order for neighbors to be aware of all your cases, you have to behave quietly. And all because the screed is made ordinary, without sound insulation.
There are two ways to reduce noise levels - absorption and interchange of the structure. With the absorption easier - in the screed and not only you need to use porous low density materials. Best of all, carpets are cope with this task, from building materials - foam / expanded polystyrene and mineral wool low density.
The second way to reduce the level of noise transmitted through the overlap is the design of the structure. Speaking with simple words, in the screed, this is the use of layers of different density, the use of porous gaskets that exclude direct contact with rigid structures. In our case, these are walls. That is, if you do not want to walk on tiptoe, so as not to disturb the neighbors, it is better to make a floating screed. Under the layer of concrete, it is not plasticized film (or not only it), but a layer of mineral wool or foam. And around the perimeter to lay porous materials that will separate the concrete from the walls. Density is minimally allowed for the calculated mass of concrete stacked above.
If you do a dry tie, under the lags also put soundproofing gaskets. They are necessary in the places of adjustment to the walls to put. And the gaps between lags fill in with good insulating characteristics. Floor screed with your own hands and good that you do for yourself and you can spend more time to get the best result.
The layer of thermal insulation in the screed of the inhabitants of high-rise buildings is not needed. Is that under the warm floor. In this case, it is better to make thermal insulation - so as not to warm the neighbors from the bottom and reduce the cost of heating. The most common materials for this layer are foamed polystyrene foam and mineral wool. Their density depends on the type of screed. Under the layer of concrete laid more dense (polystyrene foam density of at least 25 kg / m³, Minvata - 160-190 kg / m³). In the floors on the lags, the density may be less - everything solve thermal insulation and sound insulation characteristics.
Ceramzit use as a heater is ineffective. Compared to the materials, its thermal insulation characteristics, to put it mildly, is not impressive. They are 3-4 times lower. In practice, this means that replace 10 cm polystyrene can 35 cm of clay.
As you understand, the composition of the tie of the floor can be different even in two apartments located on the same floor. It all depends on what the owner wants to achieve. We give a few examples.
In any case, the result is a relatively flat concrete base. With different characteristics and properties, but externally - the same. At such a base can be putting tiles, parquet. All flaws are leveled when laying tiles. But here the differences should not be too big. According to the technology of laying tiles permissible drops in 2-3 mm.
For some coatings, an ideally flat plane is required. This is a laminate, carpet, linoleum, art vinyl and other soft flooring. Such materials need another layer - from the finish or leveling mixture. She is poured on top of the ready-made floor tie. For this, self-leveling mixtures are usually used. Just do not think that they should be simply walked and pour it into the floor, and then they themselves spread. Not at all. They should also be distributed over the surface, but simply do not need to align so carefully. After the distribution, the composition itself "will be in the horizon."
Stages of work
To make a screed with your own hands, you need to know when and how to do it. In the process of repairing the screed is poured before finishing work. That is, first leveled the ceiling, walls, put windows. Only then poured the screed. Not earlier. Because all leveling mixtures, plaster, putty weigh a lot. For work, larders and other equipment are needed. All this leaves marked on the floor. And the screed ripens at least 28 days. During this time, it gains design strength (subject to certain conditions). You can hardly wait so much to wait so much before smoothing the ceiling or walls. So all heavy and dirty work must be finished before pouring the screed.
Collect the ceiling, glue wallpaper, apply decorative plaster - these works are no longer so dirty, they do not need large weight materials for them. They can begin when concrete will drop 50% strength. At a temperature of + 20 ° C and sufficient humidity, it happens a week after the fill.
Floor screed technology
We are talking about the procedure for pouring a concrete solution. It can be any baton - from heavy, to the lung. There may be a semi-dry screed solution with a minimum amount of water.
This is a step-by-step instruction of how to make a screed with your own hands in general. There are even moments that depend on the specific composition of the screed and selected materials, but in general, the sequence of work is precisely such.
Care after fill
Do not think that after filling and aligning the concrete, the work is already over. So that concrete "caused", and did not breathe, it needs certain conditions. First, we need a temperature not lower than + 17 ° C. Secondly, a certain humidity is required. And these conditions must be created and maintained.
If you poured the screed in winter in an unheated room, you will need either:
- more time to aging;
- Special additives and a solution that makes it possible to properly gain strength with lower temperatures;
At low temperature, but not for frosts, it is easiest to add a certain amount of additives and cover the laid solution. First, the film, then saving heat something.
If the temperature is above + 25 ° C, it is necessary to ensure that the solution does not swap. To protect against evaporation, you need to curtail the windows - so that there are no zones of local overheating, cover the surface with the film. And once every two or three days, to abundantly wasting concrete. Abundant - before the appearance of the puddle. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the surface does not blur. Such moisturizing is preferably at least two or three weeks.
What materials are needed for a tie
The base of wet or semi-dry screed is a solution. Used as a simple cement-sandy mixture (CPS) and aggregates. You can add plasticizers that speed up the maturation of concrete make it more plastic. For the screed take the cement M400 or M500. Concrete for screed class M150 or M200 (do not confuse with cement marks).
You can use higher classes of concrete (with a large cement content). The surface will be more durable, but the shrinkage and the likelihood of cracking during drying is too large. Floor screed from M150 brand concrete for an apartment or at home, more than enough. You will not ride the car ... Any other load is not terrible.
Concrete proportions for screed, kneading
To obtain a cement-sand mixture for concrete M150, take 1 part of the sand and 3 parts of cement (M400 or M500). Water - 0.48-0.55 liters per kilogram of cement. You can add gravel medium or fine fractions. The proportions are given in the table.
When the knead, first stirred in a dry form to a homogeneity of bulk components, then water fills in parts. It is difficult to determine the exact amount of it - depends on the humidity of sand and gravel. Therefore, it is added in small portions, constantly stirring. For a screed, it is more convenient if the solution is low-plastic - slides from the inclined shovel.
Plasticizers that make the solution are more plastic can be added to the composition. The solution with high plasticity is easier to distribute. The cheapest additive of such a plan is PVA glue, but there are specialized. A solution is added no more than 1% of the mass of additives. It can still be useful fibrovolok. These are short fibers that prevent the development of cracks when shying the screed itself and small deformations in the shrinkage of the foundation. There are other additives changing the properties of the solution, but they increase the cost, and there are no special needs for filling the screed in the apartment or house.
What amount of concrete and cement is necessary
How to determine what volume of concrete is needed? You can easily calculate. You know the square that will need to pour, you know the thickness of the layer. All the values are translated into meters and turn it out. We get cubic meters - this will be the required volume of concrete.
Let's consider the example. We will fill the area of 45 square meters, layer - 5 cm. Translate 5 cm into meters. This is 0.05 m. Now we multiply 45 m² * 0.05 m = 2.25 m³. Approximately you will need 2.2-2.5 cube cement mortar. Knowing the required volume of solution and brand of concrete, you can determine the consumption of cement. It can be taken in the table.
Please note that the table is given cement consumption for the CPS, that is, without rubble. Deciding with the volume of concrete, you can calculate the sand mass. It must be 3 times more. It is better to take the construction sand, not river. Career sand has sharp edges, and river - smooth. It seems that the difference is small, but it is not so - with career sand concrete turns hard.
Fill screed with step-by-step with photos
The first chat made with your own hands will add to you confidence. The point is not too complicated, but physically work is hard, even if there is a concrete mixer. And if you also interfere with your hands, it will be very hard. Try to start on a small volume. It may well be that decide then order concrete in a mixer.
Look at the example of a floating screed, the separator serves an industrial tight film. For fillings, the following tools are needed:
The most expensive tool is a laser level. If the tie of the floor is not the only type of work done on its own, this tool is very useful to you. So it is better to buy it, and you should choose good quality.
How to calculate the minimum layer where to do zero level
If the base was even, the screed would be quite simple - the solution was poured, leveled to a smooth layer. Everything. But the fact is that it is extremely rare. Usually somewhere there are humps, somewhere depressions, several angles can be higher, slightly lower. Since the minimum layer of 30 mm screed, it is necessary to find the most protruding part of the base and relative to it (plus these 3 cm) withdraw the zero level.
To work, you will need a laser level with the possibility of building planes. Deploy the horizontal plane at any distance from the floor. Let it be 10 cm. Next, take a ruler or roulette and move around the perimeter of the room, measuring at what distance from the floor we "catch" the laser beam. It is displayed with a bright strip around the perimeter, so it is immediately visible as things with corners. If in each of the corners of 10 cm to the beam, you are incredibly lucky. But usually the picture is different.
If the screed floor is done in the whole apartment, you need to check all the premises and look for the highest point of the apartment. The zero level should be discarded in the entire apartment the same, however, taking into account the peculiarities of the floor covering. For example, the floor tile has a greater thickness than art vinyl, and this should be considered when the screed is pouring. In rooms intended for laying tiles, the level should be slightly lower - then you will not have floor level drops in the apartment.
When you find a point in which the smallest distance to the beam is, it will be the highest point of the base. It will become determining in the application of the zero level. This is the level on which the screed will end. To this point, add the planned screed thickness (but not less than 3 cm). At this level, we deploy the laser plane. The walls are displayed on the walls that display the screed level. Take a ruler, pencil and transfer line. Now we determine the average thickness of the screed - we go through the room again, checking how the distance it turns out to zero. Now you can more accurately determine the solution consumption and the required amount of cement.
Not all laser level models allow you to change the height of the unfolded plane. If it fails to set it at the right level, you will have to work a little. It is necessary to calculate how much the plane goes above, deposit from the laser line down this distance, spend direct.
Preparation of the foundation
If there are cracks, we close them, we consider everything too much (leave the line). We remove the garbage, it is advisable to spend it, but when using the film it is not critical, you can simply enhance. Especially film. It should go on the walls. The height of the altitude is 3-5 cm above the zero level. If the widths of one canvase are not enough, one piece of the film goes to another at least 15 cm. For the reliability of the joint can be sampled by bilateral scotch.
The film to the walls can be glued to the tape, but this fastening is unreliable - constantly falls off. It is better to take a bar, she press the film, nourish it to the walls. Yes, they are plastered, but small holes will not make difficulty.
Concrete solution will need to align. The beacon serves as the beacons - special planks that are exposed exactly on the same level with a zero mark. There are such special metal films that are called in construction stores - lighthouses. These are the planks of a special profile, a length of 3 meters, the height of the protruding part from 3 mm to 15 mm. For a tie of the floor take 10-12 mm.
As a lighthouses, you can use any smooth bar from any material. For example, pipes are round or profiled, a profile for drywall, even wooden smooth planks. The only condition - the material must be perfectly even. Any lighthouses can be placed on the solution, you can - on screws. There are also special adjustable stands for the placement of beacons. But they are expensive, it is necessary only for a while, since after a set of 50% of the strength of the lighthouses are removed from concrete, and the stands remain.
The distance between the beacons is determined by the length of the rule - by 30-50 cm less than its length. Planks exhibit along the long side of the room, from one wall to another. When installing the first lighthouse, from the wall we retreat about 30 cm. That is, the extreme strips must be about 30 cm from the walls. The rest of the space is divided into equal parts so that the distance is less than the length of the rule.
For example, the width of the room is 4.3 m, we will work with the rule of 1.5 m. We believe: 4.3 meters - 0.6 m (twice 30 cm), will be 3.7 m. You can put two lighthouse. They will realize the remaining space into three parts - 1.2 m + 1.3 m + 1.2 m. The distance may be equal to, you can move a little closer to the extreme profiles.
The arrangement of the screed begins with the placement of lighthouses. From how exactly they are exhibited, the end result will depend on. First, consider how to set lighthouses per solution. The solution is mixed from a standard CPS with the addition of one part of the gypsum. It will make it more plastic. We mix a thick solution. He must lie with a "bunch" and not sail. We add water to a minimum.
Along the wall, in the right place, at a distance of centimeters 50 lay out the groove of the solution. In height, they must be higher than the zero mark. To make it easier, turn on the laser level, we achieve the coincidence of the plane with the mark applied to the wall. We lay out the bar, press it so that it is in the same plane with a laser.
Make it is not as easy as it seems. That is higher, then lower than necessary. Even if the profile is rolled only in one place, you must start all over again. Easily easier, if you press the beacon to the rule - attach it in length and smoothly press, follow the laser beam. So efforts easier to control and the lighthouses are easier to set.
The planks exhibited in terms of the level alone on the day. During this time, the solution will grab, and it can be continued.
On screws dowels
To place beacons on screws, take fasteners with a length of the rod more than the height of the screed. The head is selected so that the selected lighthouse type is well held on it. On the floor, we draw a line along which we will set the lighthouse planks. Based on drilling holes, insert dowel plugs. Screw the screws so that the caps are on the same level. The height is determined taking into account the fact that there is still a lighthouse plank on the screws.
This method seems more time-consuming. But believe me, normally set the lighthouse on the solution - the one more task. Time as a result leaves more. Verified. Especially if the screed of the floor is done for the first time. In addition, immediately after the beacons are exhibited, you can start the pouring screed.
Layout and alignment of the solution
The solution is laying out between two lighthouses, slightly distributing it. Having a certain amount, they take the rule, they are smoothed and equalized the solution. It is moving slightly left, at the same time pulls towards him. As the basis are used beacons. The lower edge of the rule relies on them. The bar captures the surplus of the solution, pushes them in front of them. On the way, possible emptiness and pits are filled.
If, after the passage, the rules were formed by the failures, add a solution to the cell, but again far. So until we get a smooth surface. We mix a new batch of solution, align it again.
To work it was convenient, fill the screed start from the far from the entrance of the wall. It is more convenient to fill one span between the beacons, the next left blank, then fill the next one. Then - the third one. With this technology, the screed can be poured in parts. This option is good for those who make repairs after work, has a couple of hours.
This article presents a step-by-step guide to the classic cement-sand tie of the floor.
This type of screed is still very popular due to the availability of materials and simplicity of laying.
1. Purpose of the screed
The device of the floor screed is produced when it is necessary to align the base, block the communication (pipelines and electrical wiring), evenly distribute the load on the underlying layers of thermal insulation or give the surface slope.
Of course, of all the above, the most popular use of the screed is the leveling of the base under the finishing floor covering.
2. Determination of the thickness of the screed
At this stage, it is necessary to determine the thickness of the screed. To do this, make a shape of the base throughout the area to find the highest and lowest point, and the average difference value between the marks.
I will be repelled from the fact that the screed is needed as an aligning layer, and does not serve to overlap any communications.
At the highest point of the base, the thickness of the screed must be minimal to save material and reduce the load on the ceiling slab.
The minimum allowable thickness of the cement-sand screed when laying the mixture on the ceiling plate or concrete base is 20 mm (in accordance with SP 29.13330.2011 "Floors" ). However, many builders recommend to adhere to a value of 30 mm, that is, with a small margin, referring to the fact that the ideal conditions and proportions of the material are considered in the regulatory documentation, which are difficult to comply with at home.
Accordingly, at the lowest point of the base, we get the largest layer thickness.
Most convenient to perform the promresses and make the markup with a laser level, which is also called a laser level.
I think it is worth saying a few words about the principle of operation of this device.
Laser level gives a strictly horizontal plane, which is projected as a horizontal line of the laser on the wall. Some models can also additionally give two mutually perpendicular vertical planes.Scheme of the base of the base of the floor with the help of laser level and roulette. The higher the point, the less testimony on the scale, and vice versa.
For Promers, you can use a roulette, a leveling rack or a construction level with a millimeter scale. The scheme shows that the lower the base point is located, the greater the testimony on the roulette, and vice versa - the higher the point, the smaller the mark.
The laser level must be put in approximately the center of the room, turn on, and installing a roulette or a leveling rack to the specified points, remove and record the testimony on the scale.Floor base measurement diagram with laser level
Promes are performed with an interval of 1.0 - 1.5 meters, as well as in the characteristic points, that is, in those places where the markers are clearly visually visually visible.
It is more convenient to make a scheme of the Promper and apply the results obtained:An example of a measurement scheme of a base with results. Point 16 is characteristic.
Then the results must be processed. To do this, make a table:
In the table we see that the highest points of the base are №12, №14 and №15, and the lowest - №16.
Next, from the marks of all points, we deduct the value of the highest (15 cm) and write the difference (see column 3). That is, in other words, in the third column, we have the excess of the highest point above all others. For example, point number 12 (as well as 14 and 15) is 1.5 cm above point number 8.
Next, we need to add the minimum allowable screed thickness to the values in the third column. As mentioned above, when laying a cement-sand tie on a slab overlap or concrete base, the minimum layer thickness is 20 mm, so in the fourth column we get the thickness of the screed at each point.
Based on this data, you can calculate the average screed thickness. To do this, we summarize the thickness of the screed at each point and divide on the number of points. In this example, we get 3.0 cm.
The average of the thickness of the screed is necessary to calculate the number of materials for the preparation of the solution than we do in the next step.
It is important to remember that by performing the device of the screed should take into account the calculated load on the slab of the overlap and not exceed it. To do this, it is worth contacting the project data where the house was built. As a rule, a scribble thick up to 5 cm is not critical, nevertheless, it is worth refining this moment. For a device of thick screeds, loose porous materials (clay) are used as a filler for a solution or a separate underlying layer.
3. Calculation of the required number of screed materials
And so, in the previous step, we determined that the average value of the screed thickness in our conditional example is 30 mm.
Now it is necessary to calculate the area of the room. Suppose it is 20 m2.
We also need to decide on the brand of cement-sandy solution that we will use. To do this, you can again refer to section No. 8 SP 29.13330.20011 "Floors". Based on the information from this section, I made the following table:
Table 1 - Dependence of the grade of the appointment of a screed
We agreed that we consider the classical leveling cement-sand tie on a concrete base, so we are suitable for paragraph 1, and accordingly Mark - M150.
Now we have all the data to start the calculation of the required number of components of the solution.
Calculation can be performed in several ways: for the finished (purchased) mixture and for self-preparation.
1) Calculation of the finished CPS
When using the finished CPS, its consumption is indicated on the package, it is usually 17-20 kg / m2 with a layer thickness of 10 mm.An example of a finished CPS (the mixture consumption is indicated on the package)
Thus, the required amount of the mixture can be calculated by the following formula:
R- mixture consumption, kg / m2
S- area of the room, m2
t- the thickness of the screed, mm (in our example - 30 mm)
We accept consumption on the upper limit, that is, 20 kg / m2, then we get:
МMixes = 20 x 20 x (30/10) = 1200 kg (24 bag packing 50 kg)
The advantage of using the finished CPS is to save time for cooking, as well as the exact proportion of components.
The minuses include higher cost in comparison with the purchase of cement and sand on a separateness, as well as the low quality of the CPS in unscrupulous manufacturers, which save, increasing the percentage of sand in the mixture, as well as using low grades cement.
Therefore, to choosing the finished CPS you need to take seriously and peeling customer reviews.
2) Calculation of components with independent preparation
Step 1. To begin with, we calculate the volume of the cement-sand tie. For this, multiply the area of the room on the middle thickness of the screed:
VScrews = S * T = 20 * 0.03 = 0.6 m 3
Step 2. Determine with the proportion of components.
It should be noted that specialized laboratories are engaged in the capital construction and repair of selection of solutions and concrete compositions. Because, only conducting a study of components that are part of a concrete or solution can accurately determine the proportion to obtain the desired characteristics of the material.
At home, you can use the universal ratio of cement and sand, which is 1: 3 by volume and is quite suitable for household needs.
You can also check yourself if you contact SP 82-101-98 "Preparation and use of construction solutions" , namely to Table number 4 (see below). Here we will see that for the preparation of the M150 solution, it will take 350 kg of cement M400 per 1 cubic meter of sand, which approximately corresponds to the ratio of 1: 3, provided that the density of cement is 1200 kg / m3.Fragment of Table No. 4 SP 82-101-98 "Preparation and application of construction solutions"
Step 3. We define the number of cement. In the above table, the consumption of the binder is indicated, that is, cement directly by 1 m3 of the solution, namely it is 400 kg.
Then, to prepare the 0.6 m3 of the solution necessary for us, approximately 400 * 0.6 = 240 kg of cement.
Step 4. We define the amount of sand. Sand consumption is determined by volume, based on the proportion of 1: 3 (moreover, we do not know its proportion). For this, our calculated solution (0.6 m3) is divided by the number of parts in proportion (i.e. by 4) and multiply by the number of sand parts (i.e. by 3):
Vsand = 0.6: 4 * 3 ≈ 0.5 m3 (or 750-850 kg depending on the size, humidity and bulk density of sand)
Since we use a ratio of 1: 3 in terms of components, it is convenient to knead the solution conveniently using any universal measuring container. For example, in the concrete mixture, we pour 3 buckets of sand and one bucket of cement or 6 sand vender and two cement, etc. It is also convenient to consider the mixed components with shovels.
If you know another more accurate calculation of the components of the cement-sandy solution - write in the comments.
4. Preparation of the foundation
The preparation of the base follows close attention, as the quality of the clutch depends on this, and accordingly the strength characteristics of the screed.
The base must be carefully cleaned and deemed, while it is convenient to use the industrial vacuum cleaner.
Do not use the usual household vacuum cleaner for these purposes, because it can lead to his breakdown
Next, we use the primer of deep penetration and carefully process the base.Example of soil according to concrete surfaces
Also it is worth it to dissolve a small amount of solution and emphasize them all the slots and holes (the places of the outlet of heating and water supply) at the base in which the liquid can be leaked from the solution.
This is important for several reasons: firstly, the lack of moisture in the solution adversely affects the strength characteristics of the screed, secondly, if you have other premises under you, then with leaks there is a risk to flood them and damage the finish.
On the perimeter of the floor, it is necessary to glue the damper tape to compensate for the temperature expansion of the future screed and avoid cracking.Damping tape to compensate for temperature expansion screed
Installation of the damper tape is a prerequisite for the device of screeds in a layer of thermal insulation, the so-called "floating" screeds.
5. Marking and installation of beacons
5.1 Types and ways to install beacons
One of the most convenient ways is to use a beacon for plaster. The profile has two types: 6 and 10 mm in height.An example of a beacon profile that is used for the floor screed device
Such a profile is set by rows under the level of the screed. The distance between the beacons is accepted slightly smaller than the width of the rules that the mixture is spilled.
One of the most pressing issues is the fastening of the beacon profile to the base. There are several ways: with the help of cashews of the solution, with the help of a solution and dowels and with the help of special platforms.
Consider the data methods in more detail:
1) Fastening with a heap of solution
On the profile installation line, the grooming of the solution is unfolded, with an interval of 1.0 - 2.0 m (depends on the rigidity of the profile). Then the lighthouse takes free to these cakes to the required mark, which is controlled by laser level. Excess the solution over the beacon is removed using a spatula. Thus, all the necessary beacons are exhibited and the time will be waited until the solution is grabbed.Fastening the beacon with a gypsum solution
Thus, lighthouses can be installed on cement-sandy solution or on plaster plaster or spacing. But in the other case there are pros and cons.
The cement-sandy solution for the fastening of beacons provides uniformity of the screed, but it is lifted for a long time, and the gypsum mixture is folded quite quickly, but the screed in this case will be inhomogeneous. Here everyone itself decides, what mixture to use.
2) Fastening with a solution and dowels
This method is a more advanced version of the first.
On the line of installation of the lighthouse at the base (in the ceiling slab), the holes from the interval from 1.0 m are drilled. Further, the dowel is installed in the hole and twist the screws. The top of the self-proof hats is set to a mark by 10 or 6 mm below the level of the screed (depending on the height of the beacon used). Next, bugs of mortar are laid on the self-tapping screw. Then the lighthouse is interinted into the solution until it is preserved into the screw of the self-press.
Vividly this method is demonstrated in the schemes below:
3) Fastening beacons with special platforms
Above the listed methods of fastening the beacons have one minus - the solution of the solution is easy to break, accidentally coming or taped them. And recovery requires significant time spending.
Avoiding this unpleasant situation will help the use of special plastic platforms for fixing profile (photo below):
Platforms are attached to the base with the help of dowels and self-tapping and displayed at the necessary height with a level.
5.2 Marking for Lighthouses with a laser level
Step 1. First of all, it is necessary to determine the direction of lighthouses (along or cross the room).
Then it is necessary to postpone equal segments using the roulette and make the labels along the two opposite walls of the room.
Between the appropriate labels using a folding cord or the Capron thread and the marker on the existing base, lines are applied, which are marked for setting the lighthouse in the plan.
The first lighthouse is installed at 15-20 cm from the wall, and the rest at an equal distance from each other, taking into account the length of the rules. Vividly this process is demonstrated below:
Step 2. Next, you need to perform a high breakdown for lighthouses. This is the most difficult and responsible stage.
As already mentioned, the laser level gives a flat horizontal plane, respectively, the distance from any point of this plane to the top of the screed should be the same, unless, of course, we use the screed for leveling the surface, and not to give the slope.
Thus, first, we need to determine how much the distance must be postponed from the laser line to place the top of the lighthouse and the top of the tie.
For these purposes, we need to install a roulette or a level rack at the highest point of the base, which we found in the previous step. In our example, it is any of the points 12, 14 or 15.
Then we need to determine the altitude mark on the laser at this point:h - distance from the laser plane to the top of the screed, Tmin - the minimum screed thickness
Suppose that the relative altitude mark at the specified point is 15 cm, that is, it is the distance from the laser plane to the top of the base. Thus, if we take the minimum screed thickness of 20 mm, then the distance from the laser line to the top of the screed will be 15-2 = 13 cm, which is demonstrated in the diagram above.
Now, to get the top of the top of the screed at any point of the base, we need to postpone from the Laser line 13 cm.
Important: It is worth noting that if we rearrange the laser from place to place (or remove, and then set again), then in the same point of the base we can receive different relative marks. Therefore, if you interrupt the markup process and rearrange the device, the above procedure for determining the distance from the laser plane to the top of the screed must be repeated
Step 3. We postpone the high-speed marks on the walls in the field of lighting places. In our example, we need to postpone from the Laser line H = 13 cm:High-rise breakdown for installing beacons. Fixed distance is postponed from the laser line
Step 4. The lines of markup (made in step 1) under the beam profile are stacked with grooves of a solution (if, of course, you chose this method of fastening). Then the lighthouse is installed on this solution. The beginning of the lighthouse is set on the wall, and the middle and the end are regulated by the laser level.
For the convenience of alignment of the lighthouse, it is possible to make a stencil from a piece of cardboard or plywood, which makes a label with the value of H.Example of a stencil for placing beacons
Thus, all beacons are exhibited, and only after setting the locking solution, the mixture is proceeded.An example of the beacons exhibited under the tie
6. Preparation and laying of the mixture
For the preparation of the solution, you must get a suitable container. Sand and cement can be positioned separately in the corner of the room.
With large volumes of work, sand and cement are thrown into the container using Verder or shovel, as mentioned above.Sand and cement for the preparation of CPS
For example, one bucket of cement and two (three) sand buckets in accordance with the proportion are poured into the tank, using a shovel.
The resulting cement-sand mixture is stirred and only water is added to it.
It is desirable to add water to the parts, it will be easier to control the consistency of the finished mixture.
Mix the solution is necessary using a special low-definite drill, if you use a conventional perforator, then it can simply overdo it from the load.Kneading the solution with a poorly unique drill
Also at this stage, a plasticizer and fiber solo can be introduced into the solution.Fiber fiber for reinforcing floor screed
Next, the prepared solution is placed between beacons and with the help of the rule set on top of the beacons, as on the rails, the mixture is pulled out.Pulling (Running) solution with the rule
Also when pulling the solution, it is necessary to make progressive movements to the left-right. Thus, the mixture will be better to recall and fill out emptiness.
In places where the screed level went below the lighthouse, it is necessary to add a solution.
In hard-to-reach places at radiators, risers can be sprinkled with a spatula or trowel.
Do not worry about small irregularities and influx, they are easily cut after the solidification of the mixture.
7. Caring for the tie
The day after the fill of the screed, when she already hardened it is necessary to remove irregularities, influx and other defects. This uses the rule, scraper or spatula. It is important not to postpone this procedure, since if the screed dates the strength, then this work will be incredibly difficult, but the fresh screed is cut easily.
Also, in order for the cement-sand screed to be durable and served for a long time, it is very important to keep water in it during the durability period. To this end, after eliminating irregularities, the screed must be slightly poured with water and cover with a polyethylene film that will create a greenhouse effect and will not give moisture to evaporate. Under such a greenhouse, it is desirable to withstand a few days. A complete set of tie strength lasts 28 days.
As for the removal of beacons, here opinions are divided. Someone from builders removes them, closeing the grooves that remained from the beacons with a new solution, and some leave. Those who remove beacons, justify their position because the concrete screed and metal lighthouse have different coefficients of temperature expansion, so cracks can be formed with significant temperature drops. I believe that the temperature in heated room changes slightly throughout the year, so the lighthouses can be left and not to fulfill excessive work.
8. Detailed video on the center of the cement-sand tie of the floor:
I also recommend reading the article about the most common errors when the floor screed device.
How to make a tie of sex with your own hands: species of screeds, materials and technologies + stages of work
The formation on the outdoor base of the screed is a building process that requires certain knowledge and experience in this type of work. In this article, consider the question of how to make the tie of the floor with your own hands in stages.
Floor screed must align the top layer for subsequent work. But it has other features:
- the rough layer significantly strengthens the lower concrete layer of the floor;
- The fact that the screed is performed by a solid layer guarantees at least some kind of noise penetration;
- a layer waterproof the base, preventing water and evaporation to the lower floors to the neighbors;
- Inside the screed, you can pave the necessary communications (wiring, plumbing and sewer lines);
- It is easy to integrate the heating (electric or water), it is possible to save on additional heating of the room, and the built-in heat is distributed evenly throughout the concrete slab with greater returns;
- uniform load on the concrete base;
- Screed raises the floor to the height.
Types of coatings
Cement screed is called a layer above the concrete slab, prepare it from sand and cement. This is the main structure of the floor to prepare the foundation under the floor covering. Cement screed requires special attention to cooking.
Independent kneading mortar consists in connecting cement, sand and water. But faster and more convenient to work with dry mixtures that are sold in the store.
Cement screed stabilizes the temperature in the house, regulates humidity, creates additional comfort. The warm floors are usually mounted on it. Due to the high thermal inertia, such a heating system cannot be single. It is necessary to install additional heat sources. But the comfortable internal climate is regulated by a smooth screed.
The alignment of the floor is due to the dry backfill on the surface of the purified level concrete base. Depending on the purpose, the dry screed can be classified for the following types:
- Designed for linake on smooth surfaces.
- It will fall on the smooth floor on top of the heat-insulating porous fibrous material.
- The floor is performed on dry backfill.
- Installation is performed on a combined substrate.
Dry screed is easiest to perform in dry weather conditions. Suitable for apartments where condensate level is increased, for example, for accommodation on the first floor. More moisture accumulates there, additional protection of the surface is required from fluid ingress. The dry method is acceptable for wet environments, it can still be used in other climatic conditions.
It is convenient to use dry technology: after a few days on top of it, you can apply other materials. When it is strengthened, it will become uniform, it will endure any permissible load.
Concrete coating on their own stages: step-by-step instructions
From the surface of the base (from the concrete slab) you need to remove all the dirt, the existing garbage garbage with a vacuum cleaner or walk a damp cloth over the entire surface. Then the clean layer is well primed.
It is done in two approaches:
- First, the first time is neglected, waiting for drying, then begin to apply the second layer of primer.
- After drying the second layer around the perimeter of the base, the damper tape is superimposed.
The damper tape will form the desired clearance and protects from leakage when the solution is applied. From above is stacked with a layer of liquid or rolled waterproofing. It is important to calculate the level of the base level to avoid the curvature of the flooded base. It will be necessary to choose the layer thickness and the correct fill material. The level of the highest points are marked. They stretch the cord, make measurements of other, more significant recesses.
Copulation of the measurement scheme can be easily repelled around the perimeter of the line. With small drops (within 2 cm), work is performed by self-leveling mixtures. This is a rare case. Usually required by the draft layer, additionally providing noise insulation.
Montage of Mayakov
Lighthouses must be installed that the floor surface is 100% smoothly flooded with concrete. Without them, it will not be possible to align and make the base smooth. Many consider the procedure difficult to work, but it is not. The main thing is to perform the correct measurements, make a scheme.
The principle of laying lighthouses:
- Metal profiles will be needed for work. It is necessary to test them in advance for the possible presence of deformations (irregularity of parts, the difference in length, curved). All these parameters should not have deviations, otherwise the surface will not be able to align as well as necessary.
- Beacons are set at a distance of slightly less than the rule. It is enough 15 cm from the wall. Lines are drawn through the set gaps.
- Fixation is carried out on cement or plaster mix. Gypsum dry faster. Cement mortar grabs longer.
- According to the beacons, parts are distributed, according to the desired thickness of the applied layer, align all surfaces.
After the end of the work, the level of lighting installation is checked. If the level lengths are not enough for the entire plane, then two rules use in the middle of which the necessary tool has. Come on the entire width of the room with measurements.
If the thickness exceeds 4-5 cm, it is necessary to carry out reinforcement. It will improve the qualitative characteristics of the coating. Works are carried out by a special grid stacked at a short distance from the base. To form a gap, use lining from girlfriend.
Prepare a mixture for fill. From the correctness of the combination of components will depend on the quality and comfort of further action. The easiest way to prepare a solution is to take sand, cement and some water. The proportion according to the standard - 1: 3. For 1 cement bucket accounts for 3 sand buckets. At the same time, water should be pouring gradually before the formation of a homogeneous pasty consistency.
The procedure for preparing the solution at home:
- Dry components are poured into the tray or pelvis, thoroughly mixed.
- When the cement and sand are well mixed, they gradually pour water with a thin flowing.
- We mix without stop until the consistency accepts a homogeneous structure (there should be no lumps or solid inclusions).
- The mixture should not be too liquid. To provide viscosity, you can pour some more sand.
- Plasticizers add to it to enhance the properties of the solution.
After kneading, the mixture is prepared by the floor covering to the fill in two stages: create a rough and piston floor covering. Solution is mixed to prepare a draft surface.
- The mixture for the tie of the floor is beginning to fill on a certain place. To do this, choose a wall remote from the doorway.
- In the intervals between the beacons, the mixture is applied, distribute it on the surface of the rule. A little pushing to the tool, spend it by swinging movements along the floor.
- Consistently begin to lay the mixture at all intervals.
- When the solution grabbed, remove sequentially all beacons. All places that have been subject to deformation are lubricated by the residues of the mixture.
- The coated layer leaves to dry until complete readiness.
The full drying of the solution occupies about three days. Through this time, you can begin additional work on the formation of the surface, laying out the tile, linoleum.
Tools and materials
The following materials will be needed:
- Cement. Suitable for rooms with high humidity. This material has a large percentage of shrinkage, and therefore there is a risk of cracking.
- Gypsum. Made based on gypsum screed is very plastic, simple in laying. Not subjected to shrinkage, quickly dries. This is the perfect base for filling a warm floor.
- Self-leveling mixture. In a short period of time, it allows you to get a flat surface with a thickness of 3 to 30 mm. The material is designed to form a finishing coating.
Need to be stocking the following tools:
- Capacity for kneading a solution, and with large areas - a concrete mixer;
- laser level;
- spatulas of different lengths and shapes;
- Drill with a nozzle mixer;
- Auxiliary materials (cord, chalk or pencil, meter).
Filling technology Peskobeton
Sandobeton is a dense solution, so its use is justified for layers with a thickness of more than 2 cm. Mixtures based on cement are used for a lesser thickness. A solution of liquid consistency is bottled on the base and is aligned with the natural way.
- Sand-concrete solution is folded on lighthouses.
- After 8-10 days, the bulk floor is poured on it.
Optimally laying the sandbetone and cement layerly, each other. Peskobeton should dry well, but not to the end. Wet material will not take water so much in bulk sex.
Tips for specialists
Specialists advise to listen to the following advice:
- When planning a finishing finish using a self-leveling mixture, you need to provide a perfectly smooth surface. It is not necessary to achieve glossiness of the bulk mixture, since the rough particles of the sand will not be able to break through the floor. There will always be a slightly rough base.
- It is impossible to allow overabundance of water in solutions. First, when laying the water mixture it seems to be perfect, but after time it gives a strong shrinkage. The surface becomes uneven. With excessive moisture, cracks will appear, which will then have to discharge the new portion of the mixture.
- When working, you need to close the windows with the curtains so that the direct solar rays do not fall on the heated solution. You can not open the doors to avoid drafts.
- During the durability recruitment period, to the extent possible, it is possible to go (3-5 days), it is necessary to eliminate the movement of people and domestic animals.
- Lighthouses remove not immediately at the end of the work, but after 2-3 days. The revealed furrows are maintained by the residues of the cooked mixture.
- Full drying occurs in about 28-30 days. Do not begin to finish the floor before the expiration of this term.
The poorly fastened layer, even if it is made in compliance with all the conditions, can save, split or crack. This must be taken into account, do not hurry with further work.
With your own hands, perform a light tie in the apartment is not difficult. To do this, you need to explore the instructions, calculate the volumes, draw up the work scheme and prepare all the necessary tools and materials.
We offer to watch video with a phased instruction of the screed in the apartment:
Before covering the floor in your home or apartment with a linoleum or laminate, it is necessary to thoroughly align its surface. To do this, you need to make a light tie. This work is relatively simple, and it can be performed by it yourself. To do this, make the following steps.
1 Stage: Floor Preparation
The main task at this stage is cleaning and dusting the surface of the base. Unfortunately, very many builders neglect this process, and do not remove garbage and dust from the base floor. In some cases, this is due to the lack of vacuum cleaners, in others - because of banal laziness. However, this procedure is extremely important. In the presence of contaminants, the screed is poorly connected with the base, and therefore with time it can be detached.
2 Stage: Floor Printing
After the base is cleaned of dirt, it needs to be covered with primer. This can be made by spraying using the kraskopultum. With its absence, the primer can simply pour on the floor directly from the canister, and then roll out the roller throughout the area of the room. The main flooring of the primer will provide a greater clutch between it and the layer of screed. After the day after applying the primer, you can proceed to the next step of work.
3 Stage: Defining the highest point of the floor
The easiest way to find the right level is the use of a laser disbeller and a conventional roulette. If you do not have a laser disbeller, you can use the usual bubble level. In order to determine the highest floor point, you need to perform the following steps:
- We establish the dispenser in the middle of the room.
- Configure its height (for example, 2 meters from the floor).
- We guide the ray on the wall of the room.
- We go with a tape measure along the line created by the beam on the wall, and we simulate the distance from it to the floor. If the distance from the floor to the line is less than 1 meter, then in this place on the floor of the elevation. If this distance exceeds 1 meter, then in this section of the floor deepening.
4 Stage: Decal Damping Tape
It is necessary to attach to the perimeter of the room by damping tape, called the coastal tape. For thin-layer screeds, a ribbon having a thickness of 5 millimeters is suitable. For thick coating, the ribbon tape is needed from the foamed polyethylene 1 centimeter thick. If the walls are separated by soft plaster, drywall or wood, then the ribbon fastening is performed using a stapler. A ribbon is glued with a bare concrete wall with silicone. The damper tape compensates for the temperature expansion of the screed. In addition, she acts as a noise insulator and during the fill protects the wall from pollution. If the pipes of the heating system come out of the floor, then they must be tied up with damper tape.
5 Stage: Laying Lighthouses
After attaching the damper tape, you need to pick up and install beacons. Special metal profiles are used as lighthouses, the height of which depends on the thickness of the screed. Usually used lighthouses 6 mm high. For thicker screeds take lighthouses with a height of 10 mm. The optimal length of one profile strip is no more than one and a half meters. A longer strip will be fed.
Stage 6: Adjustment of Lighthouse Level
So that the lighthouses do not be bitten, you can place the additional number of plaster or cement under them.
7 Stage: Selection of material for screed
This very responsible stage of work, since, first of all, the material determines the quality of the future coating. Two ways are possible here:
- Separately purchase sand with cement and make a solution for screed yourself.
- Purchase the ready-made composition from the manufacturer recognized in the market.
In the first case, perhaps in itself the solution will get cheaper. But it should not forget about such factors as transportation and storage of material, as well as the cost of time and quality of the finished screed. If it all thoroughly weighing, it may turn out that it will be more profitable to buy a mixture due to such advantages as
- High quality product;
- convenience of transportation;
- quick preparation;
- the stability of the quality of the finished working solution;
- The most optimal composition of the mixture, verified in the laboratory conditions.
For the preparation of the solution, use a building mixer or, in the case of large volumes, concrete mixer. Applying a drill or a perforator for this is undesirable, since the engines of these power tools are not designed for such loads and may fail. For the fill of the screed, sandbeton is well suited with the strength of M300. For thick, thickness more than 2 cm, the screeds are better to use pure sandbetone. For screeds thinner 2 cm into the solution it is worth adding 20% tiled glue. By the same glue, the base floor should be covered before performing the fill.
8 Stage: Pouring screed
When filling the floor, follow the following procedures:
- Apply a pin layer. To do this, simply pour the tile glue to the base surface and roll it with a roller. Glue provides a good clutch of the screed with a base and prevents the departure of moisture to the base floor.
- Without waiting for the drying of the glue, pour the solution to the main floor and it is evenly distributed using a trowel.
- Spray the solution with a vibration wheel, while at the same time rambling it.
9 Stage: Cutting Screeds
This procedure is performed the day after the fill.
Important: Trimming is performed before the screed fully solidifies and gain strength. Otherwise, this work is impossible.
Performing trimming, you need to remove various irregularities from the floor and align it in light rooms. Upon completion of the floor, the remaining garbage can be removed from the floor using a vacuum cleaner.
10 Stage: Dismantling of beacons or shrinkage compensation
The next day after the fill, the screed will definitely see a little. As a result, the edge of the beacons will rise above the floor surface. There are 2 ways to solve this problem:
- Just pull out the lighthouses from the floor and smear the remaining grooves from them with a solution.
- Apply a thin layer of glue for tiles to the tile with protruding edges of beacons. After the glue is grabbing, the floor surface will need to be cut again.
11 Stage: Caring for the tie
The final strength of the screed is gaining in 28 days. During this time you need to water water. After watering, the surface of the screed is desirable to cover with a plastic film.